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C1q/TNF-related protein 2
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(approved gene symbol) This factor was isolated by an expression cloning strategy as a ligand for previously characterised G-protein-coupled protein orphan receptors known as STRL33, Bonzo or TYMSTR (new designation CXCR6) (Wilbanks et al, 2001). The protein does not appear to bind to any other of the known chemokine receptors.
CXCL16 has been identified independently as SR-PSOX [scavenger receptor that binds phosphatidylserine and oxidized lipoprotein]. An older designation is SCYB16 [small inducible cytokine subfamily B member 16].
CXCL16 has a structure similar to fractalkine (also known as neurotactin) in having a transmembrane region and a chemokine domain suspended by a mucin-like stalk. CXCL16 is a member of a group of cytokines generally known as chemokines. Members of this group of so-called CXC-Chemokines belong to the SCY family of cytokines and are designated CXCL (L for ligand) followed by a number.
CXCL16 is chemotactic for tonsil-derived CD4(+) T-lymphocytes. CXCL16 is expressed on the surface of antibody-presenting cells including subsets of CD19(+) B-cells and CD14(+) monocytes and macrophages. Biologically active CXCL16 is also shed from macrophages.
Abel et al (2004) have reported that membrane-bound CXCL16 is liberated from fibroblasts and endothelial cells by a sheddase, which has been identified as ADAM10.
Zhuge et al (2005) have reported that CXCL16 stimulates proliferation and chemotaxis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. It also significantly induces tube formation by these gels in Matrigel cultures. CXCL16 thus may act as an angiogenic factor.
Held-Feindt et al (2008) have reported that CXCL16 and its receptor are overexpressed in human tumors derived from Schwann cells (schwannomas) and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Expression is observed mainly on schwannoma cells expressing S100. Cultured schwannoma cells respond to CXCL16 by increased proliferation and migration, suggesting that CXCL16 acts as a growth factor for schwannomas.
Sheikine et al (2006) have reported that decreased plasma CXCL16 concentrations are associated with coronary artery disease.
Tohyama et al (2007) have reported that the chemokine domain of CXCL16 possesses significant anti-microbial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Thus the factor may play a role also in innate immunity
CXCL16v is an isoform of CXCL16 obtained by alternative splicing. It that lacks the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. This isoform is expressed by dendritic cells, which also express the transmembrane CXCL16 isoform, and is secreted as a protein of approximately 10 kDa. CXCL16v is expressed broadly in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues resembling the tissue distribution of dendritic cells. CXCL16v specifically attracts lymphoid cells expressing the chemokine receptor CXCR6 (van der Voort R et al, 2010).
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ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: August 2010
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