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cumulus cells

Cumulus cells are specialized granulosa cells surrounding and nourishing the oocyte. These cells surround the fully-grown oocyte to form a cumulus-oocyte complex (abbr. COC). The terms cumulus oophorus cells, cumulus granulosa cells, cumulus oophorous granulosa cells, granulosa-cumulus cells are used to make a distinction between these cells and the other functionally different subpopulation of granulosa cells at the wall of the Graafian follicle (see: granulosa cells).

Cumulus cells provide key products for the acquisition of developmental competence and differ from granulosa cells in their hormonal responses and growth factors they produce. The absence of cumulus cells or insufficient numbers of cumulus cells impairs embryo production. Denuded oocytes in culture cannot undergo normal fertilization and development. Cumulus cells are required for the successful maturation of oocytes and also for fertilization. These cells synthesize an abundant muco-elastic extracellular matrix, which promotes oocyte extrusion from the follicle, a 20-40 fold increase in the volume of the cumulus mass, and probably also functions as a selective barrier for sperm (Salustri, 2000). For cellular and molecular events during oocyte maturation and the formation of the extracellular matrix of the cumulus-oocyte complex see also: Russel and Salustry (2006) and Kimura et al (2007).

Cumulus cells show high expression of many enzymes of the glycolytic pathway and also neutral amino acid transporters. Their expression is promoted by paracrine factors secreted by oocytes (Eppig et al, 2005; Sugiura et al, 2005), which themselves are unable to take up L-alanine and poorly metabolize glucose for energy production and thus depend on cumulus cells for their provision (Biggers et al, 1967; Colonna and Mangia, 1983; Donahue and Stern, 1968; Eppig et al, 2005; Haghighat and Van Winkle, 1990; Leese and Barton, 1984, 1985). Cumulus cell metabolic pathways, particularly glycolysis and cholesterol biosynthesis (Su et al, 2008), are highly affected by mutations in two key protein growth factors derived from oocytes, BMP15 and GDF9 (Juengel and McNatty, 2005).

Cumulus cells have been shown to possess the capacity to express the proteins listed below. Please note the following general observations, which practically apply to all cell types: expression may be influenced by tissue localization, may occur only in discrete subpopulations of cells, may vary between established cell lines, primary cells, embryonic cells, mature cells, fully differentiated cells, activated cells, non-activated cells or growth conditions (confluent vs. sparse cultures), may be influenced by various disease states (including cancer environment), and may differ between species.
Note also: expression profile information lists entities only for which there is an entry in COPE or one of its subdictionaries.

The meaning of and „„ is as follows: factor/protein is expressed; „„ receptor (or, in some instances, binding sites) for this factor/protein is expressed. For further explanations concerning format, "hidden" information, and/or ambiguities see my remarks in the entry cell types.


Activin A (EDF, erythroid differentiation factor, FRP, Follicle stimulating hormone releasing protein, Restrictin-P, WEHI-MIF, WEHI mesoderm inducing factor, activin-beta-A, INHA, inhibin-alpha, Inhibin-beta-A, INHBA ) (Izadyar et al, 1998; Rabinovici et al, 1992; Silva and Knight, 1998; Assou et al, 2006)
„„ Activin A (EDF, erythroid differentiation factor, FRP, Follicle stimulating hormone releasing protein, Restrictin-P, WEHI-MIF, WEHI mesoderm inducing factor, activin-beta-A, INHA, inhibin-alpha, Inhibin-beta-A, INHBA ) receptors (Izadyar et al, 1998; Sidis et al, 1998)
actRII (BMP receptor) (Zhu et al, 2008)
ADAM8 (disintegrin and metalloprotease domain 8, MS2, CD156) (Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006; Sriraman et al, 2008)
ADAM17 (disintegrin and metalloprotease domain 17, TACE, TNF-alpha converting enzyme, TACA, TNF-alpha converting activity, TNF-alpha convertase, TNF-alpha sheddase, cSVP, cellular snake venom-like protease, CD156b) (Yamashita Y et al, 2009, 2010; Romero et al, 2011)
ADAMTS1 (Disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif-1, METH-1, KIAA1346) (Assou et al, 2006; Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006; Richards et al, 2005; Shimada et al, 2004; Romero et al 2011)
ADAMTS4 (Disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif-4, Aggrecanase-1, hyalectanase) (Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006; Richards et al, 2005)

„„ adiponectin (Adpn, Apn, ACDC, adiponectin, C1q and collagen domain containing, ADIPOQ, apM1, adipose Most abundant gene transcript-1, GBP-28, gelatin-binding protein of 28 kDa, adipocyte complement related protein of 30 kDa, Acrp30, 30 kDa adipocyte complement-related protein, adipocyte-specific secretory protein) receptors (ADIPOR1, adiponectin receptor 1, PAQR1, progestin and adipoQ receptor family member 1, ACDCR1, TESBP1A, CGI-45, AURA43, augmented in rheumatoid arthritis 43) (Chappaz et al, 2008; Tabandeh et al, 2012)
„„ adiponectin (Adpn, Apn, ACDC, adiponectin, C1q and collagen domain containing, ADIPOQ, apM1, adipose Most abundant gene transcript-1, GBP-28, gelatin-binding protein of 28 kDa, adipocyte complement related protein of 30 kDa, Acrp30, 30 kDa adipocyte complement-related protein, adipocyte-specific secretory protein) receptors (ADIPOR2, adiponectin receptor 2, PAQR2, progestin and adipoQ receptor family member 2, ACDCR2) (Chappaz et al, 2008; Tabandeh et al, 2012)
ALK3 (Activin receptor-like kinase 3, BMPR1A, bone morphogenetic protein receptor type IA, CD292) (Zhu et al, 2008)
ALK6 (Activin receptor-like kinase 6, BMPR1B, bone morphogenetic protein receptor type IB) (Zhu et al, 2008)
amphiregulin (AR, AMR, AREG, CRDGF, colorectum cell-derived growth factor, KAF, keratinocyte-derived autocrine factor, SDGF, schwannoma-derived growth factor, AURA9, augmented in rheumatoid arthritis 9) (Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006; Feuerstein et al, 2007; Yoshino et al, 2007; Yamashita Y et al, 2009; Yamashita et al, 2010; Liu Z et al, 2010; Noma N et al, 2011; Nyholt de Prada et al, 2009)
„„ amphiregulin (AR, AMR, AREG, CRDGF, colorectum cell-derived growth factor, KAF, keratinocyte-derived autocrine factor, SDGF, schwannoma-derived growth factor, AURA9, augmented in rheumatoid arthritis 9) receptors (EGFR, EGF receptor 1, epidermal growth factor receptor 1, erb, erbB1, HER1, SA-7, species antigen 7) (Chen et al, 2008; Downs and Chen, 2007; Shimada et al, 2006; Sriraman et al, 2008)
„„ ANF (Atrial natriuretic factor, natriuretic peptide, atrionatriuretic factor, Alpha-ANP, Atrial natriuretic polypeptide, ANP, Atrial polypeptide, Atriopeptin, cardionatrin, cardionatrin I, NPPA) receptors (Memili et al, 2007; Tšrnell et al, 1990; Zhang et al, 2005)

BAMBI (BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor, NMA, Non-metastatic gene A protein) (Assou et al, 2006)
basigin (BSG, CD147, EMMPRIN, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, 5A11, CE-9, Collagenase stimulatory factor, gp42, HT7, M6, neurothelin, Oka blood group antigen, OX47) (Kuno et al, 1998; Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006)
BAX (BCL2 associated x protein, BCL2L4, BCL2-like-4) (Paula-Lopes et al, 2007)
BCL2L11 (BCL2-like-11, BAM, BIM, BOD, BCL2 interacting mediator of cell death, BCL2-related ovarian death gene) (Assou et al, 2008)
BDNF (Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Abrineurin) (Kawamura et al, 2005; Buyuk et al, 2011)
Betacellulin (BTC, Bcn) (Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006; Assidi et al, 2008; Yoshino et al, 2007; Nyholt de Prada et al, 2009)
betaglycan (TGFBR3, TGFR3, TbetaRIII, TbetaR3, transforming growth factor-beta receptor 3; TGF-beta receptor 3; TGF-beta receptor type 3; type 3 TGF-beta receptors) (Watson et al, 2012)
bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor, FGF basic, FGF-2, Fibroblast growth factor-2, FGF-beta, Fibroblast growth factor-beta, HBGF-2, heparin binding growth factor-2) (Watson et al, 1992)
BIRC4 (baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein-4, API3, Apoptosis inhibitor 3, XIAP, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis, ILP, IAP-like protein, MIHA, mammalian IAP homolog A) (Paula-Lopes et al, 2007)
BMP1 (bone morphogenetic protein-1, procollagen C-proteinase, EC3.4.24.19; mammalian tolloid, mTld, tolloid, Tld) (Assou et al, 2006; Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006)
BMP4 (bone morphogenetic protein-4, bone morphogenetic protein-2B, BMP2B, DVR-4, decapentaplegic-Vg-related-4, BIP, bone-inducing protein) (Zhu et al, 2008)
BMP6 (DVR-6, decapentaplegic-Vg-related-6, Vgr-1, vegetal-specific-related-1) (Zhu et al, 2008)
„„ BMP6 (DVR-6, decapentaplegic-Vg-related-6, Vgr-1, vegetal-specific-related-1) receptors (Hussein et al, 2005)
„„ BMP7 (bone morphogenetic protein-7, OP-1, osteogenic protein-1, Eptotermin alfa, Osigraft) receptors (Hussein et al, 2005)
BMP8b (Bone morphogenetic protein-8b, OP-3, osteogenic protein-3) (Assou et al, 2006)
BMP15 (bone morphogenetic protein-15) (Zhao et al, 2010; Hosoe M et al, 2011)
„„ BMP15 (bone morphogenetic protein-15) receptors (Hussein et al, 2005; Su et al, 2008; Sugiura et al, 2007, 2009; Yoshino et al, 2007)
BMPR2 (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II) (Assou et al, 2006; Zhu et al, 2008)
„„ BNP (Brain natriuretic peptide, B-type natriuretic peptide, NPPB, ASIP, Aldosterone Secretion Inhibitory Factor, BNP(1-32), BNP-32, Brain natriuretic peptide-36, N-terminal proBNP, NT-proBNP, gamma-BNP) receptors (Memili et al, 2007)
„„ bradykinin (BK, BDK, BKN, Bradykinin(1-9), BK[1-9], Alpha-2-thiol proteinase inhibitor, Fitzgerald factor, Flaujeac factor, HMWK, HMWKa, High molecular weight kininogen, HMWK-kallikrein factor, KNG, KNG1, Kininogen, Kininogen-1, LMWK, Low molecular weight kininogen, Williams factor, Williams-Fitzgerald-Flaujeac factor) receptors (Memili et al, 2007)

cathepsin K (Assou et al, 2006)
cation-dependent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (Memili et al, 2007)
CCL2 (CC chemokine ligand 2, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, GDCF, Glioma-derived monocyte chemotactic factor-2, GDCF-2, HC11, JE, LDCF, MCAF, MCP, monocyte chemoattractant protein, MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, SMC-CF, smooth muscle cell chemotactic factor, TDCF, tumor-derived chemotactic factors, TSG-8, tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene sequence-8, SCYA2) (Tamba et al, 2008; Tamba et al, 2008)
CCL9 (CC chemokine ligand 9, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 9, SCYA9, MRP-2, Macrophage inflammatory protein-related protein-2, MIP-related protein-2, CCF18, MIP-1-gamma, macrophage inflammatory protein-1-gamma) (Tamba et al, 2008)
CCL21 (CC chemokine ligand 21, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21, SCYA21, 6Ckine, chemokine with 6 cysteines, Ck-beta-9, Chemokine-beta-9, Exodus-2, SLC, Secondary Lymphoid-Tissue Chemokine, TCA-4, T-cell activation-4) (Memili et al, 2007)
CCR7 (CC-Chemokine receptor 7, EBI-1, EBV induced gene-1, blr-2, CMKBR7, Burkitt lymphoma receptor-2, CD197) (Memili et al, 2007)
CCR9 (CC-Chemokine receptor 9, GPR9-6, GPR28, G-protein-coupled receptor-28, CDw199) (Memili et al, 2007)
CD14 (endotoxin receptor, Leu M3, LPS-R, Mo2, MY4, myeloid cell-specific leucine-rich glycoprotein, hdl, heedless) (Shimada et al, 2006)
CD24 (CD24a, 30F1, B2A2, BA-1, HB8, VIB E3, HIS50, HSA, heat stable antigen, J11d, JIId, Ly52, M1/69, Nectadrin, LR-1, SCLC surface antigen Cluster-4, CL-4; R13-Ag, R13 antigen, X62 heat stable antigen) (Assou et al, 2006)
CD28 (T90/44, Tp44, Kolt-2) (Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006)
CD34 (hemopoietic progenitor cell antigen 1, HPCA1, gp105-120, BI.3C5, ICH3, MY10, 188.27) (Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006)
CD36 (collagen type 1 receptor, FAT, fatty acid translocase, glycoprotein 3b, GP4, platelet glycoprotein 4, GPIIIb, Naka blood group antigen, OKM5, PAS-4 protein, periodic acid/Schiff-positive protein 4, PASIV, periodic acid/Schiff-positive band 4, platelet collagen receptor, thrombospondin receptor, UA009, obl, oblivious) (Shimada et al, 2006)
CD44 (CDw44, CD44H, CD44A, CD44s, CD44st, CD44std, AnWj blood group antigen, ECMR-3, extracellular matrix receptor-3, class 3 ECMR, gp85, HCAM, homing-associated cell adhesion molecule, Hermes-1, Hermes antigen, HUTCH-1, Indian blood group antigen, In blood group antigen, Ly24, MC56, MDU2, MDU3, MIC4, MUC 2-63, OX49, PGP1, PGP1.1, phagocytic glycoprotein-1, GM35 antigen) (Assidi et al, 2008; Assou et al, 2006; Borg and Holland, 2008; Campbell et al, 1995; Kimura et al, 2002; Yokoo et al, 2002, 2007)
CD46 (gp45-70, HuLy-m5, MCP, membrane cofactor protein, measles virus receptor, MIC10, TLX, TRA-2-10, trophoblast-leukocyte common antigen, trophoblast-lymphocyte cross-reactive antigen) (Taylor and Johnson, 1996)
CD47 (1D8, B6H12, BRIC 126, IAP, integrin-associated protein, integrin-associated signal transducer, MER6, OA3, ovarian carcinoma antigen 3, OVTL3) (Assou et al, 2006)
CD52 (CAMPATH-1, Cambridge pathology 1 antigen, Epididymal secretory protein E5, H6-3C4 antigen, HE5, human epididymis secretory protein-5, SAGA-1, Sperm Agglutination Antigen-1, SMemG, sperm membrane glycopeptide) (Hasegawa et al, 2008; Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006)
CD55 (CD55a, CD55b, complement decay-accelerating factor, decay-accelerating factor, DAF, DAF-GPI, DAF-TM, GPI-DAF, TM-DAF, DAF1, decay-accelerating factor 1, DAF2, decay-accelerating factor 2, Cromer blood group antigen) (Taylor and Johnson, 1996)
CD58 (LFA-3, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3, T11TS, T11 target structure) (Assou et al, 2006)
CD59 (CD59a, protectin, MIC11, MIN2, MIN3, MSK21, HRF20, homologous restriction factor-20 kDa, MACIF, membrane attack complex inhibitory factor, MAC-IP, MAC-inhibitory protein, H19, MIRL, membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis, P18, 1F5, 16.3A5, BRIC 229, YTH 53.1) (Assou et al, 2006; Taylor and Johnson, 1996)
CD63 (81H, AD1, GP55, granulophysin, HOP-26, LIMP, lysosomal integral membrane protein, LIMP-1, lysosomal integral membrane protein-1, ME491, melanoma associated antigen ME491, MLA1, melanoma-associated antigen 1, NGA, neuroglandular antigen, NKI-C3, OMA81H, ocular melanoma-associated antigen 81H, PLTGP40, platelet glycoprotein gp40, TSPAN30, tetraspanin 30) (Assou et al, 2006)
CD74 (HLA-DR-gamma, HLADG, HLA class 2 histocompatibility antigen gamma chain, HLA-DR associated invariant chain, Ia-gamma, LN2, MHC class 2 invariant chain) (Assou et al, 2006)
CD79a (CD79-alpha, Ig-alpha, Ly54, mb-1) (Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006)
CD81 (2F7, 5A6, S5.7, TAPA-1, target of antiproliferative antibody 1, TSPAN28, tetraspanin 28) (Assou et al, 2006; Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006)
CD92 (CTL1, CHTL1, choline transporter-like protein 1, GR9, SLC44A1 [solute carrier family 44 member 1) (Assou et al, 2006)
CD95 (FAS, APO-1, apoptosis antigen-1, APT1, TNFRSF6, TNF receptor superfamily member 6, FASTM, FASL receptor) (Paula-Lopes et al, 2007)
CD97 (BL-KDD/F12, GR1, TM7LN1, AURA51, augmented in rheumatoid arthritis 51) (Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006)
CD99 (12E7, MIC2, MIC2X, MIC2Y, E2 antigen, CD99R, O13, hec2, HBA-71) (Assou et al, 2006)
CD151 (PETA-3, platelet-endothelial cell tetraspan antigen 3, SFA-1, SF-HT activated gene 1, TSPAN24, tetraspanin 24, RAPH, Raph blood group) (Assou et al, 2006)
CD166 (2117 antigen, ALCAM, Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule, BEN, CD6L-100, DM-GRASP, F84.1 antigen, HCA, Hematopoietic cell antigen, JC7, KG-CAM, MEMD, melanoma metastasizing clone D, metastasizing melanoma protein D, MuSC, Neurolin, SC-1) (Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006; Adriaenssens T et al, 2010)
CD200 (OX2, MOX2, MRC OX2, OX104, My033) (Assou et al, 2006)
CFHL1 (complement factor H-related 1) (Assou et al, 2006)
Clusterin (CLU, dimeric acidic glycoprotein, DAG protein, testosterone repressed prostate message-2, TRPM-2, sulfated glycoprotein-2, SGP-2, complement-associated protein SP-40,40, SP-40,40, complement lysis inhibitor, CLI, Apolipoprotein J) (Assou et al, 2006)
complement component 1r, (C1R) (Assou et al, 2006)
complement component 1s, (C1S) (Assou et al, 2006)
complement component 7 (Assou et al, 2006)
complement factor H (factor H, CFH, H factor, HF, H factor-1, HF1, beta 1 H globulin, C3b inactivator accelerator, A-C3bINA, AMBP-1, AM34 antigen, Adrenomedullin binding protein-1, AM binding protein-1) (Assou et al, 2006)
complement factor q1 (Shimada et al, 2006)
CSPG2 (chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 2) (Assou et al, 2006; Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006)
CTRP2 (C1q/TNF-related protein 2, C1QTNF2, Complement C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein 2, zacrp2) (Memili et al, 2007)
CXCL1 (CXC chemokine ligand 1, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, SCYB1, CINC-1, Cytokine induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1, fsp, fibroblast secretory protein, GRO1, GRO-alpha, KC, MGSA, melanoma growth stimulatory activity, MGSA-alpha, melanoma growth stimulatory activity-alpha, NAP-3, neutrophil-activating protein-3, N51) (Assou et al, 2006)
CXCL13-like (Memili et al, 2007)
CXCR4 (CXC-Chemokine receptor 4, LESTR, leukocyte-derived 7-transmembrane domain receptor, HUMSTR, NPYRL, neuropeptide Y receptor-like, NPY3R, neuropeptide Y receptor Y3, HM89, Fusin, LCR-1, FB22, LAP3, Lipopolysaccharide-associated protein 3, SDF-1 receptor, CD184, AURA86, augmented in rheumatoid arthritis 86) (Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006)

„„ EGF (epidermal growth factor, EGF-URO, HMGF, human milk growth factor, PGF, prostatic growth factor, beta-Urogastrone, URO, URG, Urogastrone, tooth-lid factor) receptors (EGFR, EGF receptor 1, epidermal growth factor receptor 1, erb, erbB1, HER1, SA-7, species antigen 7) (Assidi et al, 2008; Chen et al, 2008; Downs and Chen, 2007; el-Danasouri et al, 1993; Gall et al, 2004; Gall et al, 2005; Hatoya et al, 2009; O'Donnell et al, 2004; Prochazka et al, 2003; Zhou et al, 2008; Yamashita Y et al, 2010; Romero et al, 2011)
endothelin-1 (ET-1(1-21), ET-1, EDN1) receptors (Kawamura et al, 2009)
ephA1 (Eph receptor A1, EPH, Esk, embryonic stem cell kinase) (Memili et al, 2007)
ephA2 (Eph receptor A2, ECK, epithelial cell kinase) (Memili et al, 2007)
ephA5 (Eph receptor A5, BSK, brain-specific kinase, HEK7, human embryo kinase-7, Rek7) (Memili et al, 2007)
ephA8 (Eph receptor A8, HEK3, human embryo kinase-3, EEK, EPH and ELK-related kinase) (Memili et al, 2007)
EphB2 (Eph receptor B2, ERK, ELK-related tyrosine kinase, HEK5, human embryo kinase-5, Tyro5, tyrosine-protein kinase 5, Sek3, Rek5, DRT, developmentally regulated EPH-related tyrosine kinase, Nuk, Cek5, chicken embryonic kinase 5) (Memili et al, 2007)
EphB3 (Eph receptor B3, HEK2, human embryo kinase-2, Tyro6, MDK5, Mouse Developmental Kinase-5, Sek4, Cek10, chicken embryonic kinase 10) (Memili et al, 2007)
Epiregulin (EREG, EPR) (Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006; Yoshino et al, 2007; Yamashita Y et al, 2009; Yamashita et al, 2010; Liu Z et al, 2010; Romero et al, 2011; Nyholt de Prada et al, 2009)

FAS ligand (FASL, FASLG, APT1LG1, apoptosis antigen ligand 1, CD95 ligand, CD95L, APO-1 ligand, APTL, Apoptosis antigen ligand, TNF ligand superfamily member 6, TNFSF6, CD178) (Paula-Lopes et al, 2007; Rubio Pomar et al, 2004)
Fetuin-A (FETUA, Fetuin, pp63, phosphorylated N-glycoprotein, 59 kDa bone sialoprotein, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, AHSG, alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein, Countertrypin, Haemonectin) (Hoyer et al, 2001)
„„ FGF-8 (Fibroblast growth factor-8, AIGF, androgen induced growth factor) receptors (Sugiura et al, 2007)
„„ FGF-10 (fibroblast growth factor-10, KGF-2, Keratinocyte growth factor-2) receptors (Zhang K et al, 2010)
FGFR1 (fibroblast growth factor receptor-1, BFGFR, basic fibroblast growth factor receptor, FGFBR, FGFB receptor, flt-2, fms-like tyrosine kinase-2, flg, fms-like gene, N-sam, Cek1, chicken embryonic kinase 1, KAL2, Kallmann syndrome 2, CD331) (Zhang K et al, 2010)
fibronectin (FN, fibronectin-1, FN1, LETS, large external transformation-sensitive protein, Fibroblast surface antigen, SF antigen, SFA, CIg, CI globulin, cold-insoluble globulin, CSP, galactoprotein A, MSF, migration stimulating factor, Z protein) (Goossens et al, 2009)
follistatin (FST, Follicle stimulating hormone suppressing protein, FSP, Activin-binding protein) (Izadyar et al, 1998; Sidis et al, 1998; Silva and Knight, 1998; Silva et al, 2003)
frizzled-1 (frizzled family receptor 1, FzD1, Fz1) (Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006)
frizzled-2 (frizzled family receptor 2, FzD2, FzE2, Fz2) (Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006; Wang et al, 2009)
frizzled-3 (frizzled family receptor 3, FzD3, Fz3) (Wang et al, 2009)
frizzled-9 (frizzled family receptor 9, FzD9, Fz9, FzD3, CD349) (Wang et al, 2009)
FSH receptors (Nuttinck et al, 2004; Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006; Shimada et al, 2006)

„„ gas-6 (Growth arrest-specific gene-6, Growth-potentiating factor, GPF, AXLLG, axl receptor tyrosine kinase ligand, AXSF, axl stimulatory factor) receptors (Memili et al, 2007)
GDF9 (growth/differentiation factor-9) (Lee et al, 2007; Prochazka et al, 2004; Sidis et al, 1998; Zhao et al, 2010; Hosoe M et al, 2011; Watson et al, 2012)
„„ GDF9 (growth/differentiation factor-9) receptors (Leyens et al, 2004; Su et al, 2008; Sugiura et al, 2007, 2009)
GDNF (Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, B49-derived neurotrophic factor, Astrocyte-derived trophic factor, ATF, ATF-1, Astrocyte-derived trophic factor-1, ATF-2, Astrocyte-derived trophic factor-2) (Kawamura et al, 2009)
„„ GDNF (Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, B49-derived neurotrophic factor, Astrocyte-derived trophic factor, ATF, ATF-1, Astrocyte-derived trophic factor-1, ATF-2, Astrocyte-derived trophic factor-2) receptors (ret) (Linher et al, 2007)
„„ glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1, 7-37, glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-37), GLP-1 (1-37), insulinotropin) receptors (Memili et al, 2007)
„„ glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2 (1-33), glucagon-like peptide-2) receptors (Memili et al, 2007)
„„ glycodelin (PP14, placental protein 14, GdA, Glycodelin-A, GdS, Glycodelin-S, PAEP, progestagen-associated endometrial protein, pregnancy-associated endometrial alpha-2-globulin, progestagen-dependent endometrial protein) receptors (Hayes et al, 2006)
Glypican (glypican-1, glypican proteoglycan 1, GPC1, M12) (Watson et al, 2012)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (luteinizing-releasing hormone) (Assou et al, 2006)
„„ gp130 (IL6ST, IL6 signal transducer, IL6R-beta, IL6RB, CDw130, CD130) (Eckert and Niemann, 1998)
GRB2 (growth factor receptor-bound protein-2; ASH, abundant src homology) (Memili et al, 2007)
Gremlin (gremlin-1, GREM1, BMP antagonist 1, CKTSF1B1, DAND2, DAN domain family member 2, IHG-2, increased in high clucose-2, DRM, Downregulated by mos, PIG2, proliferation inducing gene-2, Cell proliferation-inducing gene 2 protein) (Assidi et al, 2008; Cillo et al, 2007; McKenzie et al, 2005; Adriaenssens T et al, 2010)
gremlin-2 (GREM2, BMP antagonist 2, PRDC, protein related to DAN and cerberus, CKTSF1B2, DAND3) (Sugiura et al, 2009)
growth hormone (GH, Somatotropic hormone, Somatotropin, GH1, growth hormone 1, GHN, growth hormone normal) (Izadyar et al, 1999)
„„ growth hormone (GH, Somatotropic hormone, Somatotropin, GH1, growth hormone 1, GHN, growth hormone normal) receptors (Menezo et al, 2003; Marchal et al, 2003; Pantaleon et al, 1997)

HCRTR2 (hypocretin receptor 2, orexin receptor 2) (Memili et al, 2007)
HER3 (human EGF receptor-3, EGF receptor 3, epidermal growth factor receptor 3, erbB3, p180erbB3) (Memili et al, 2007)

IF I factor (complement) (Assou et al, 2006)
„„ IFN-alpha (interferon-alpha, Alpha-Interferon, aIFN, B-cell interferon, Leukocyte interferon, LeIFN, Lymphoblast interferon, LyIFN-alpha) receptors (IFNAR1, IFN-alpha/beta receptor 1, interferon (alpha, beta and omega) receptor 1, IFN-alphaR1, IFRC, IFNAR, IFNAR2, IFN-alpha/beta receptor 2, interferon (alpha, beta and omega) receptor 2, IFN-alphaR2, IFNABR) (Memili et al, 2007)
IGF-1 (Insulin-like growth factor-1, Erythropoietic factor, mechano growth factor, MGF, ILGF1, somatomedin C, NSILA, non-suppressible insulin-like activity, Somatomedin A, Somatomedin C, sulfation factor, Mecasermin) (Kumamoto et al, 2005; Nuttinck et al, 2004; Zhu et al, 2008)
„„ IGF-1 (Insulin-like growth factor-1, Erythropoietic factor, mechano growth factor, MGF, ILGF1, somatomedin C, NSILA, non-suppressible insulin-like activity, Somatomedin A, Somatomedin C, sulfation factor, Mecasermin) receptors (IGF1R, CD221, JTK13) (Armstrong et al, 1996; Khamsi and Roberge, 2001; Khamsi et al, 2001; Memili et al, 2007; Singh and Armstrong, 1998; Zhu et al, 2008)
„„ IGF-2 (Insulin-like growth factor-2, Growth-promoting activity for vascular endothelial cells, T3M-11-derived growth factor, ILGF2, MSA, multiplication stimulating activity, NSILA, non-suppressible insulin-like activity, Somatomedin A, sulfation factor, SGF, skeletal growth factor, HP1-SMP, HP3-SMP, Somatomedin/insulin-like growth factor-like polypeptides, C11orf43, chromosome 11 open reading frame 43) receptors (IGF2R, CD222, mannose-6-phosphate receptor; MPR, CIM6PR, cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, MPRI, MPR300) (Memili et al, 2007)
IGFBP2 (Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2, IGF binding protein-2) (Nuttinck et al, 2004; Schultz et al, 1993)
IGFBP3 (Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, IGF binding protein-3, BP-53, Growth hormone dependent binding protein, Binding protein-29) (Schultz et al, 1993)
IGFBP4 (Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4, IGF binding protein-4, Colon cancer cell growth inhibitor, HT29-IGFBP, HT29 insulin-like growth factor binding protein) (Nuttinck et al, 2004; Schultz et al, 1993)
IGFBP6 (Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-6, IGF binding protein-6) (Schultz et al, 1993)
IGFR1 (Nuttinck et al, 2004)
IL1 (interleukin-1) (Barak et al, 1992; Zolti et al, 1991)
IL1-alpha (IL1A, interleukin-1-alpha, IL1F1, Interleukin-1 family member 1, BAF, B-cell activating factor, BCAF, B-cell activating factor, EP, endogenous pyrogens, LAF, lymphocyte activating factor, LEM, leukocyte endogenous mediator, MCF, mononuclear cell factor, MNCF, mononuclear cell factor, MP, mitogenic protein, TRF-3, T-cell replacing factor-3, Tumor inhibitory factor-2) (de los Santos et al, 1998)
IL1-beta (IL1B, interleukin-1-beta, IL1F2, Interleukin-1 family member 2, Catabolin, H1, Hematopoietin-1, IFN-beta inducing factor, Interleukin-beta, OAF, osteoclast activating factor) (Assou et al, 2006; de los Santos et al, 1998; Martoriati et al, 2002)
IL1ra (IL1 receptor antagonist, IL1RN, IL1 inhibitor, IRAP, IL1 receptor antagonist protein, IL1 inhibitory activity, ILS, IL1F3, IL1 family member 3, DIRA, deficiency of the IL1 receptor antagonist) (de los Santos et al, 1998; Martoriati et al, 2002)
„„ IL1 (interleukin-1) receptors (IL1RA, IL1R-alpha, IL1 receptor-alpha; interleukin-1 receptor-alpha, IL1R1, IL1 receptor type 1, Interleukin-1 receptor 1, IL1 receptor R1, CD121a; IL1RB, IL1R-beta, IL1 receptor-beta; interleukin-1 receptor-beta, IL1R2, IL1 receptor type 2, Interleukin-1 receptor 2, IL1 receptor R2, CD121b, AURA31, augmented in rheumatoid arthritis 31) (de los Santos et al, 1998; Martoriati et al, 2002)
IL4 (Interleukin-4, BCDF-epsilon, B-cell differentiation factor-epsilon, BCDF-gamma, B-cell differentiation factor-gamma, BCGF-gamma, B-cell growth factor-gamma, BCGF-1, B-cell growth factor-1, Binetrakin, BSF-1, B-cell stimulating factor-1, BSF-p1, B-cell stimulating factor p1, EL4-BCGF, EL4 B-cell growth factor, HCGF, Hodgkin's cell growth factor, IgE-EF, IgE enhancing factor, IgG1-enhancing factor, IgG1-induction factor, LMW-BCGF, low molecular weight B-cell growth factor, MaGEF, Mast cell growth enhancing factor, MCGF-2, mast cell growth factor-2, MFF, macrophage fusion factor, Pitrakinra, TCGF-2, T-cell growth factor-2) (Piccinni et al, 2001)
„„ IL4 (Interleukin-4, BCDF-epsilon, B-cell differentiation factor-epsilon, BCDF-gamma, B-cell differentiation factor-gamma, BCGF-gamma, B-cell growth factor-gamma, BCGF-1, B-cell growth factor-1, Binetrakin, BSF-1, B-cell stimulating factor-1, BSF-p1, B-cell stimulating factor p1, EL4-BCGF, EL4 B-cell growth factor, HCGF, Hodgkin's cell growth factor, IgE-EF, IgE enhancing factor, IgG1-enhancing factor, IgG1-induction factor, LMW-BCGF, low molecular weight B-cell growth factor, MaGEF, Mast cell growth enhancing factor, MCGF-2, mast cell growth factor-2, MFF, macrophage fusion factor, Pitrakinra, TCGF-2, T-cell growth factor-2) receptors (Memili et al, 2007)
IL6 (interleukin-6, 26 kDa protein, BSF-2, B-cell stimulating factor-2, CDF, CAT development factor, choline acetyltransferase development factor, Cytolytic differentiation factor for T-lymphocytes, FDGI, fibroblast-derived growth inhibitor, hybridoma growth factor, HPGF, hybridoma/plasmacytoma growth factor, HSF, hepatocyte stimulating factor, HSF-1, hepatocyte stimulating factor-1, ILHP1, Interleukin-hemopoietin-1, MGI-2A, Macrophage-granulocyte inducer-2A, Myeloma GF, myeloma growth factor, NKAF, natural killer cell activating factor, TAF, T-cell activating factor, Thymocyte growth factor, TSF, thymocyte stimulating factor) (Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006; Shimada et al, 2006; Zolti et al, 1991)
IL8 (interleukin-8, SCYB8, 3-10C, 9E3, ANAP, anionic neutrophil-activating peptide, Chemotaxin, CEF-4, CT/IL8, CXCL8, CXC chemokine ligand 8, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8, EDNAP, endothelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide, EMF-1, embryo fibroblast protein 1, Emoctakin, ENAP, Endothelial cell neutrophil-activating peptide, FDNAP, Fibroblast-derived neutrophil-activating peptide, FINAP, fibroblast-derived neutrophil-activating protein, GCF, granulocyte chemotactic factor, GCP, granulocyte chemotactic peptide, LAI, leukocyte adhesion inhibitor, LCF, lymphocyte chemotactic factors, LDNAP, leukocyte-derived neutrophil-activating peptide, leukocyte inhibitory factor, LUCT, lung carcinoma-derived chemotaxin, LYNAP, lymphocyte-derived neutrophil-activating peptide, MDNAP, monocyte-derived neutrophil-activating peptide, MDNCF, monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor, MOC, monocyte-derived chemotaxin, MONAP, monocyte-derived neutrophil-activating peptide, NAF, neutrophil-activating factor, NAP-1, neutrophil-activating protein-1, NCF, neutrophil chemotactic factor, NCP, neutrophil chemotactic protein, PLF, psoriatic leukotactic factor, TCF, T-cell chemotactic factor, TSG-1, Tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene sequence-1) (Assou et al, 2006)
IL12 (IL12A, IL12-alpha IL12B, IL12-beta, IL12-p35, IL12-p40, IL12-p70, Interleukin-12, Interleukin-12A, Interleukin-12B, CLMF, cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor, NKSF, natural killer cell stimulatory factor, NKSF1, natural killer cell stimulatory factor-1, NKSF2, natural killer cell stimulatory factor-2, TcMF, CTL maturation factor, TSF, T-cell stimulating factor) (Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006)
„„ IL17B (interleukin-17B, Cytokine CX1, NIRF, neuronal interleukin-17-related factor, neuronal IL17-related factor, Zcyto7) receptors (IL17RB, interleukin-17 receptor B; IL17 receptor B, IL17BR, IL17B receptor; Interleukin-17B receptor, CRL4, Cytokine receptor-like 4, Evi27, ecotropic viral integration site 27, IL17Rh1, IL17 receptor homolog-1) (Memili et al, 2007)
IL18 (interleukin-18, IGIF, IFN-gamma inducing factor, IL1-gamma, IL1F4, IL1 family member 4, Iboctadekin) (Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006)
IL20 (interleukin-20, Zcyto10; IL10D, interleukin-10D) receptors (IL20RA, interleukin-20 receptor-alpha, IL20R-alpha, IL20R1, IL20 receptor-1, CRF2-8, cytokine receptor family 2 member 8, ZcytoR7; IL20RB, interleukin-20 receptor-beta, IL20R-beta, IL20R2, IL20 receptor-2, DIRS1) (Memili et al, 2007)
„„ IL25 (interleukin-25, IL17E, interleukin-17E) receptors (Memili et al, 2007)
inhibin-alpha (Assou et al, 2006; Sidis et al, 1998)
inhibin-alpha-A (Silva et al, 2003)
Inhibin-beta (Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006)
inhibin-beta-A (Assidi et al, 2008; Braw-Tal, 1994; Sidis et al, 1998; Silva et al, 2003; Assou et al, 2006)
Inhibin-beta-B (INHBB) (Sidis et al, 1998; Silva et al, 2003)
IRAK1 (IL1 receptor-associated kinase-1, IRAK, IL1 receptor-associated kinase; mPLK, Pelle-like protein kinase, Plpk) (Memili et al, 2007)
IRF3 (interferon regulatory factor-3) (Shimada et al, 2006)

„„ KGF (keratinocyte growth factor, HBGF-7, heparin binding growth factor-7, FGF-7, fibroblast growth factor-7, palifermin) receptors (KGF receptor, KGFR, CD332, fibroblast growth factor receptor-2, TK-14, bek, bacterially expressed kinase, Cek3, chicken embryonic kinase 3, K-sam, KATO-III cell-derived stomach cancer amplified gene) (Cho et al, 2008)
KIR3DL1 (Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 3DL1, NKAT3, NK-associated transcript-3, NKB1, CL11, AMB11, KIRL1, KIR-like-1, DX9 antigen) (Memili et al, 2007)

leptin (ob, ob/ob, obese protein, obesity factor, Metreleptin) (Cioffi et al, 1998)
„„ leptin (ob, ob/ob, obese protein, obesity factor, Metreleptin) receptors (LEPR, OBR, CD295, db, db/db, fatty, fa, fa/fa) (Memili et al, 2007; Paula-Lopes et al, 2007; van Tol et al, 2008; van Tol HT et al, 2010)
LIF (leukemia inhibitory factor; myeloid leukemia inhibitory factor, ABAE cell growth-inhibitory activity; CDF, cholinergic differentiation factor, CNDF, cholinergic neuronal differentiation factor, D-Factor, differentiation stimulating factor, DIA, differentiation inhibiting activity, DIF, differentiation inducing factor, DRF, Differentiation-retarding factor, ES cell growth factor, ESCGF, embryonic stem cell growth factor, GATS, growth stimulatory activity for TS1 cells, HILDA, human interleukin for Da cells, HSF-2, hepatocyte stimulating factor-2, HSF-3, hepatocyte stimulating factor-3, Lipoprotein lipase inhibitor, M1 differentiation inducing activity, MCGEF, mast cell growth-enhancing factor, MLPLI, melanoma-derived lipoprotein lipase inhibitor, OAF, osteoclast activating factor) (Eckert and Niemann, 1998; Piccinni et al, 2001)
LIF (leukemia inhibitory factor; myeloid leukemia inhibitory factor, ABAE cell growth-inhibitory activity; CDF, cholinergic differentiation factor, CNDF, cholinergic neuronal differentiation factor, D-Factor, differentiation stimulating factor, DIA, differentiation inhibiting activity, DIF, differentiation inducing factor, DRF, Differentiation-retarding factor, ES cell growth factor, ESCGF, embryonic stem cell growth factor, GATS, growth stimulatory activity for TS1 cells, HILDA, human interleukin for Da cells, HSF-2, hepatocyte stimulating factor-2, HSF-3, hepatocyte stimulating factor-3, Lipoprotein lipase inhibitor, M1 differentiation inducing activity, MCGEF, mast cell growth-enhancing factor, MLPLI, melanoma-derived lipoprotein lipase inhibitor, OAF, osteoclast activating factor) receptors (LIFR, leukemia inhibitory factor receptor, LIF receptor, LIFR-alpha, leukemia inhibitory factor receptor-alpha, LIF receptor-alpha, LIFR-beta, LIF receptor-beta; leukemia inhibitory factor receptor-beta, CD118, IL6ST, IL6 signal transducer, IL6R-beta, IL6RB, CDw130, CD130) (De Matos et al, 2008; Eckert and Niemann, 1998; Memili et al, 2007)
LRP2 (low density lipoprotein-related protein 2, gp330, Megalin, rat Heymann nephritis antigen, lipocalin-2 receptor) (Memili et al, 2007)
luteinizing hormone receptors (Bukovsky et al, 1993; Assou et al, 2006; Fu et al, 2007)

M-CSF (macrophage colony stimulating factor, CSF-1, colony stimulating factor-1, CSF-HU, Urinary colony stimulating factor, MGF, macrophage growth factor, MGI-1M, macrophage-granulocyte inducer, op, osteopetrotic, toothless, tl, Lanimostim) (Arceci et al, 1992; Zolti et al, 1991)
MIS (MŸllerian inhibiting substance, AMH, anti-MŸllerian hormone, MIF, MŸllerian inhibiting factor, MŸllerian inhibiting hormone) (Salmon et al, 2004; Hirobe et al, 1992, 1994; Ueono et al, 1989)

Netrin-4 (Hetrin, Beta-Netrin, hepar-derived netrin-like protein) (Memili et al, 2007)
Netrin-4 (Hetrin, Beta-Netrin, hepar-derived netrin-like protein) receptors (Memili et al, 2007)
neuregulin-3 (NRG-3) (Memili et al, 2007)
Neurotensin (NTS, NT, NT/NN, NT/N, Neuromedin N, NN, NMN) (Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006)
„„ NGF (nerve growth factor, 7S NGF, 7S nerve growth factor, NGF-alpha, Nerve growth factor-alpha, kallikrein Klk1b4, Klk1b4, NGF-beta, NGFB, Nerve growth factor-beta, NGFG, NGF-gamma, Nerve growth factor-gamma, kallikrein Klk1b3, Klk1b3) receptors (NGFR, p75NTR, p75 neurotrophin receptor, p75LNGFR, p75NGFR, LNGFR, p75 low affinity NGF receptor, TNFRSF16, TNF receptor superfamily member 16, CD271) (Buyuk et al, 2011)
NKEF-B (Natural killer enhancing factor B, Peroxiredoxin-2, PRDX2, PRX2, TDPX1, thioredoxin-dependent peroxide reductase-1, Calpromotin, PRP, protector protein, Torin, TSA, thiol-specific antioxidant protein) (Assou et al, 2006)
NLRP5 (NLR family, pyrin-domain containing 5, NALP5, NACHT-LRR-PYD-containing protein-5, PYPAF8, Pyrin-containing APAF-1-like protein 8, CLR19.8, MATER [Maternal Antigen That Embryos Require, OP1, ooplasm-specific protein 1, PAN11, PAAD and NACHT-containing protein 11) (Sena et al, 2009; Maraldi et al, 2009; Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006)
noggin (NOG) (Sugiura et al, 2009)
„„ NPR3 (natriuretic peptide receptor 3, NPR-C, natriuretic peptide receptor-C, ANPRC, atrial natriuretic peptide clearance receptor C, C5ORF23, chromosome 5 open reading frame 23, osteocrin receptor, musclin receptor, longjohn, Lgj, longjohn-2J, lgj(2J), strigosus, stri) (Zhang M et al, 2005)

oxytocin (OT, OXT) (Furuya et al, 1995)
„„ oxytocin (OT, OXT) receptors (Furuya et al, 1995)

PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, ADCYAP1, adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1, PACAP(1-27), PACAP27, PACAP(1-38), PACAP38) (GrŠs et al, 1996; Koh et al, 2000)
„„ PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, ADCYAP1, adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1, PACAP(1-27), PACAP27, PACAP(1-38), PACAP38) receptors (Koh et al, 2000)
PAI-1 (Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, PAI, plasminogen activator inhibitor, endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor, Serpin E1, MSF, monocyte suppressor factor, EIP-1, EGF-inducible protein 1, mesosecrin) (Piquette et al, 1993; Kessel et al, 1992)
PAI-2 (Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, epidermal plasminogen activator inhibitor, monocyte-derived plasminogen activator inhibitor, Monocyte Arg-serpin, PLANH2, urokinase inhibitor, PP10, placental protein 10, Serpin B2) (Piquette et al, 1993)
PAPP-A (pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, Pappalysin-1, EC3.4.24.79, IGFBP4 protease, DIPLA1, Differentially expressed in placenta 1) (Assou et al, 2006)
PDCD1 (programmed cell death-1, PD-1, programmed death-1, Ly101, CD279) (Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006)
pentraxin-3 (Pentaxin-3, PTX3, TNFAIP5, tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 5, pentraxin-related gene rapidly induced by IL1-beta, TSG-14, tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene sequence-14) (Cillo et al, 2007; Diaz et al, 2007; Salustri et al, 2004; Yoshino et al, 2007; Zhang et al, 2005; Assou et al, 2006; van Tol HT et al, 2010)
peroxiredoxin-5 (PRDX5, PRX5, B166, antioxidant enzyme B166, AOEB166) (Assou et al, 2006)
peroxiredoxin-6 (Assou et al, 2006; Leyens et al, 2004)
Pleiotrophin (PTN, HARP, heparin affin regulatory peptide, HBBM, heparin binding brain mitogen, HB-GAF, heparin binding growth-associated factor, HB-GAM, heparin binding growth-associated molecule, HBGF-8, heparin binding growth factor-8, HBNF, heparin binding neurotrophic factor, NEGF-1, neurite growth-promoting factor-1, OSF-1, osteoblast-specific factor-1) (Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006)
„„ prolactin (PRL, lactogenic hormone, lactotropin, lactotropic hormone, mammotropin, mammotropic hormone, luteotropic hormone, LTH, luteotropin) receptors (PRLR) (Kiapekou et al, 2005; Lebedeva et al, 2006; Lebedeva et al, 2008; Memili et al, 2007)

RANKL (RANK ligand, receptor activator of NF-kappa-B ligand, ODF, Osteoclast differentiation factor, OPGL, Osteoprotegerin ligand, SOFA, Stromal osteoclast-forming activity, TRANCE, tumor necrosis factor-related activation induced cytokine, TNFSF11, TNF ligand superfamily member 11) (Assou et al, 2006)
„„ Reelin (RELN, RL, reeler, CR-50 antigen) receptors (APOER2, Apolipoprotein E receptor 2, LRP8, low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8) (Memili et al, 2007)

SAA3 (serum amyloid A3) (Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006)
SCF (stem cell factor, HLGF-1, hemolymphopoietic growth factor-1), kit ligand, KITL, KITLG, Mast/stem cell growth factor, MGF, mast cell growth factor, SLF, steel factor) (Joyce et al, 1999; Arceci et al, 1992)
SCF (stem cell factor, HLGF-1, hemolymphopoietic growth factor-1), kit ligand, KITL, KITLG, Mast/stem cell growth factor, MGF, mast cell growth factor, SLF, steel factor) receptors (kit, SCFR, CD117) (Memili et al, 2007)
semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A, SEMA1, Semaphorin 3, sema III, collapsin-1, coll-1, Hsema-I, Semaphorin D, Sem D, SEMAD) (Assou et al, 2006)
semaphorin 6A (SEMA6A, Semaphorin Q, SEMAQ, KIAA1368) (Assou et al, 2006)
semaphorin 6D (SEMA6D, KIAA1479) (Assou et al, 2006)
sFRP2 (secreted frizzled-related protein 2, FRP2, frizzled-related protein 2, SARP-1, secreted apoptosis-related protein-1, SDF-5, stromal cell derived factor-5, FKSG12) (Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006)
sFRP4 (secreted frizzled-related protein 4, FRP4, frizzled-related protein 4, FRPHE, frizzled-related protein human endometrium, DDC-4, FrzB2, frizzled B2) (Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006)
sprouty-2 (Spry-2) (Sugiura et al, 2009; Zhang K et al, 2010)
sprouty-4 (Spry-4) (Adriaenssens T et al, 2010)
Syndecan-1 (syndecan, syndecan proteoglycan 1, SDC1, Synd1, SD-1, 104-9 antigen, 1D4 antigen, B-B2 antigen, B-B4 antigen, Mi15, CD138) (Watson et al, 2012)
Syndecan-4 (SDC4, SYND4, amphiglycan, ryudocan) (Adriaenssens T et al, 2010; Watson et al, 2012)

tenascin-C (TN-C, Tenascin, TN, TNC220, TNS, TNC320, TNL, Cytotactin, hexabrachion, HXB, myotendinous antigen, M1 antigen, GMEM, Glioma-associated-extracellular matrix antigen, neuronectin, J1 Glycoprotein, J1/tenascin, tenascin-J1) (Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006)
„„ TGF-alpha (transforming growth factor-alpha, TGFA, TGF-A, MDGF-2, milk-derived growth factor-2, TCGF, transformed cell growth factor, wa-1, waved-1) receptors (Coskun and Lin, 1994)
„„ TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta, TGFB, B-TGF, Aqueous humor lymphocyte inhibitory activity, DIF, differentiation-inhibiting factor, EGI, epithelial cell-specific growth inhibitor; epithelial growth inhibitor, EIF, Epstein-Barr virus inducing factor, Epithelial cell growth inhibiting factor, G-TsF, glioma-derived T-cell suppressor factor, MDGF, milk-derived growth factor, MGF, milk growth factor, Polyergin, Simian BSC-1 cell growth inhibitor, SP factor, TCGF, transformed cell growth factor, TGI, tissue-derived growth inhibitor, TIF-1, tumor inducing factor-1) receptors (TGFBR1, TbetaRI, TbetaR1, transforming growth factor-beta receptor 1, TGF-beta receptor 1; TGF-beta receptor type 1, type 1 TGF-beta receptors, ALK5, Activin receptor-like kinase 5, activin A receptor type 2-like kinase, ACVRLK4, activin receptor-like kinase 4; TGFBR2, TbetaRII, TbetaR2, transforming growth factor-beta receptor 2, TGF-beta receptor 2, TGF-beta receptor type 2, type 1 TGF-beta receptors, MFS2, Marfan syndrome type 2) (Memili et al, 2007; Salustri et al, 1990)
TGF-beta-1 (TGFB1, transforming growth factor-beta-1, CIF-A, cartilage inducing factor A, ISF, immunosuppressive factor, MGF-b, milk growth factor, PDGI, platelet-derived endothelial cell growth inhibitor) (Gilchrist et al, 2003; Mulheron et al, 1992)
TGF-beta-2 (transforming growth factor-beta-2, TGFB2, G-TsF, Glioblastoma-derived T-cell suppressor factor, CIF-B, cartilage inducing factor B, Corneal epithelial inhibitor of stromal cell collagenase synthesis, DSF, decidual suppressor factor, MGF-a, milk growth factor) (Ghiglieri et al, 1995; Gilchrist et al, 2003; Mulheron et al, 1992)
TGF-beta-3 (transforming growth factor-beta-3, TGFB3, ARVD1, Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy type 1) (Memili et al, 2007)
„„ Thrombin receptor (TR, CF2R, coagulation factor 2 receptor, F2R, PAR-1, Proteinase-activated receptor 1) (Cheng Y et al, 2012)
„„ Thyrotropin (TSH, thyroid stimulating hormone, Thyrotropic hormone) receptors (Memili et al, 2007)
TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1, TIMP, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, HCI, human collagenase inhibitor, CLGI, 3/10, 16C8, Fibroblast elongation factor, fibroblast collagenase inhibitor, B1 anticollagenase, Beta-1 anticollagenase, EPA, erythroid promoting activity, embryogenin-1, TPA-S1, TPA-induced protein S1) (Assou et al, 2006)
TIMP-3 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3, TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 3, mitogen-inducible gene 5, mig-5; SFD, Sorsby fundus dystrophy) (Assou et al, 2006)
TLR-2 (Toll-like receptor-2, TIL-4, Toll-interleukin-1 receptor-like-4, Ly105, lymphocyte antigen 105, CD282) (Memili et al, 2007; Shimada et al, 2008)
TLR-4 (Toll-like receptor-4, human Toll, TOLL, Ly87, Rasl2-8, CD284) (Shimada et al, 2006; Shimada et al, 2008)
TLR-7 (Toll-like receptor-7) (Memili et al, 2007)
TLR-8 (Toll-like receptor-8, CD288) (Shimada et al, 2006)
TLR-9 (Toll-like receptor-9, A6RP, A6-related protein, CD289) (Shimada et al, 2006)
TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, TNFSF2, TNF ligand superfamily member 2, Cachectin, CF, cytotoxic factor, CTX, cytotoxin, DIF, differentiation inducing factor, EP, endogenous pyrogens, Hemorrhagic factor, Macrophage-derived cytotoxic factor, J774-derived cytotoxic factor, MCF, macrophage cytotoxic factor, MCT, macrophage cytotoxin, MD-FGF, monocyte-derived fibroblast growth factor, PCF, peritoneal cytotoxic factor, RCF, Released cytotoxic factor) (Johnson et al, 1999; Naz et al, 1997; Shimada et al, 2006; Zolti et al, 1991)
„„ TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, TNFSF2, TNF ligand superfamily member 2, Cachectin, CF, cytotoxic factor, CTX, cytotoxin, DIF, differentiation inducing factor, EP, endogenous pyrogens, Hemorrhagic factor, Macrophage-derived cytotoxic factor, J774-derived cytotoxic factor, MCF, macrophage cytotoxic factor, MCT, macrophage cytotoxin, MD-FGF, monocyte-derived fibroblast growth factor, PCF, peritoneal cytotoxic factor, RCF, Released cytotoxic factor) receptors (CD120a, TNFRSF1A, TNF receptor superfamily member 1A, FPF, TNFAR, TNFR, TNFR1, TNFR55, TNFR60, TNFR-alpha, TNF receptor 1; CD120b, TNFRSF1B, TNF receptor superfamily member 1B, p75TNFR, TNFR2, TNFR75, TNFR80, TNFR-beta) (Naz et al, 1997; Assou et al, 2006)
TOLLIP (Toll-interacting protein) (Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006)
TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand, APO-2 ligand, APO-2L, TL2, TNF-like-2, TNF ligand superfamily member 10, TNFSF10, Ly81, CD253) (Chang et al, 2005)
„„ TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand, APO-2 ligand, APO-2L, TL2, TNF-like-2, TNF ligand superfamily member 10, TNFSF10, Ly81, CD253) receptor-2 (TRAIL receptor-2, TRAIL-R2, death receptor-5, DR5, KILLER, TRICK2, TRAIL receptor inducer of cell killing-2, TNFRSF10B, TNF receptor superfamily member 10B, CD262, Ly98) (Assou et al, 2006; Chang et al, 2005)
TRANK (thioredoxin peroxidase-related activator of NF-kappa-B and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, PRDX4, peroxiredoxin-4, PRX4, AOE372, antioxidant enzyme AOE372) (Assou et al, 2006)
transferrin (TRF, DF-77, GPBP, granulocyte/pollen-binding protein, Lung-derived growth factor) (Memili et al, 2007)
„„ transferrin (TRF, DF-77, GPBP, granulocyte/pollen-binding protein, Lung-derived growth factor) receptors (CD71, TFR, TFR1, TRFR, TFRC, OKT9, T9, OX26) (Memili et al, 2007)
trkA (tropomyosin-related kinase A, NTRK1, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 1) (Barboni et al, 2002; Buyuk et al, 2011)
trkB (tropomyosin-related kinase B, NTRK2, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 2) (Buyuk et al, 2011)
TSG-6 (tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene sequence-6, TNFAIP6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 6, TNFIP6, tumor necrosis factor-induced protein 6, PS4) (Mukhopadhyay D et al, 2001; Ochsner et al, 2003; Yoshioka et al, 2000; Assidi et al, 2008; Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006; Carrette et al, 2001; FŸlšp et al, 2003; Ochsner et al, 2003; Yoshino et al, 2007; Tesfaye et al, 2009; Haouzi D et al, 2009; Yamashita Y et al, 2009)
„„ TWEAK (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis, APO-3L, APO-3 ligand, DR3LG, DR3 ligand, TNF ligand superfamily member 12, TNFSF12) receptors (TWEAKR, TNFRSF12A, TNF receptor superfamily member 12A, Fn-14, fibroblast growth factor-inducible-14, CD266) (De et al, 2006; Assou et al, 2006)

VEGF-A (Vascular endothelial growth factor A; VEGF-1, vascular endothelial growth factor-1, VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; vasculo-endothelial growth factor, VEG/PF, vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor, GD-VEGF, glioma-derived vascular endothelial growth factor, VAS, Vasculotropin, Vascular endothelial cell proliferation factor; VPF, vascular permeability factor, Mouse sarcoma 180-derived growth factor; FSdGF, Folliculo stellate cell-derived growth factor) (Abbas et al, 2003; Einspanier et al, 2002; Hayes et al, 2006)
VEGF-D (vascular endothelial growth factor D, FIGF, fos induced growth factor) (Memili et al, 2007)
„„ VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) receptors (Memili et al, 2007)

Wnt-2 (IRP, int-1-related protein, INT1L1, int-1-like 1) (Wang et al, 2009)
Wnt-4 (SERKAL) (Hernandez-Gonzalez I et al, 2006)

For other related/relevant entries see also: Cell types.


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ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: December 2012



 

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