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This type 1 interferon protein is co-expressed with IFN-gamma by the trophectoderm of the pig conceptus between day 12 and day 18 of gestation (Lefevre et al, 1998). Pig IFN-delta is a protein 149 amino acids. The protein shows high antiviral activity on porcine cells and is inactive on human cells. IFN-delta has high antiproliferative activity, which is enhanced significantly in the presence of IFN-gamma. On pig cells IFN-delta binds to the same type I receptor as IFN-alpha.
The vaccinia virus encoded factor B18R has been shown to neutralize the antiviral activity of porcine IFN-delta with high efficiency (Vancova et al, 1998).
Cochet et al (2009) have reported that IFN-delta is not restricted topigs and is more widely represented among mammals. Ovine IFN-delta (139 amino acids) appears to be the shortest natural type 1 interferon protein presently known. Two IFN-delta proteins, named IFN-delta-1 and IFN-delta-2 have been found in the horse. They are thought to play an important role in maternal-fetal interactions during early pregnancy in the horse. Cochet et al (2009) have identified also potentially functional IFN-delta genes from various species belonging to the four mammalian lineages Afrotheria, Xenarthra, Euarchontoglires and Laurasiatheria). These interferons show a high rate of identity with porcine IFN-delta.
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ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: October 2009
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