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Cytokine induced neutrophil chemoattractant-3
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This protein, termed also vCXC-1 or vCXCL1 (viral CXC-Chemokine-1), is encoded by an open reading frame in the genome of human cytomegalovirus (HHV5; Toledo strain) (Penfold et al, 1999). The gene is adjacent to another chemokine hololog, UL147 (Saederup and Mocarski, 2002). The protein shows a high degree of amino acid sequence variability in different isolates of human CMV and has been given the designation orf152 in the Towne strain of the virus (Penfold et al, 1999). The gene is not found in the commonly used AD169 strain but present in all clinical isolates of the virus studied so far.
UL146 shows characteristics of CXC-Chemokines and, like other virus-encoded factors, may be involved in host evasion.
UL146 encodes a chemokine that attracts neutrophils. This factor is as potent as host IL8 and functions via the CXCR2 receptor, one of two human IL8 receptors. It does not bind to other receptors for chemokines, including the second IL8 receptor.
Miller-Kittrel et al (2007) have studied the chimpanzee CMV ortholog of UL146. While the chimpanzee protein shows similar activation potential, chemotactic properties, and signaling, it has an approximately 70-fold lower affinity to CXCR2 (IL8 receptor) and also displays differences in integrin upregulation and neutrophil apoptosis.
For other viral proteins that mimic the actions of cytokines or that are involved in cytokine signaling see also the Virulence Factors Dictionary section of this encyclopedia.
Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2008
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