COPE Advertising options


http://immunospot.com/index.php?id=233 Cell Sciences Inc http://www.promokine.info/products/cytokines-growth-factors/

COPE Homepage Bottom of page Previous entry:
Cytokine cascades
Next entry:
Cytokine CX1
Random entry:
East Lansing Tyrosine Kinase
Search COPE:

Please donate

If you find COPE helpful,
please show your appreciation
by donating what you can afford.

Cytokine Concentrations in Biological Fluids

This is a still scanty collection of information about the concentrations of cytokines and growth factors in serum and other body fluids. I have collected this data while I went along with work on other entries of COPE. In other words, I have not pursued this systematically. Also, living in a third world country now, access to articles from specialized journals is a bit difficult.


_________________________________________________________________________

Contact COPE if you can provide additional information.
I need "real values" in one of the formats used here (not box diagrams with error bars from which, depending on the scale, one can only approximate values)
_________________________________________________________________________


I am almost sure that you are as frustrated as I am about the range of "normal" values reported in the literature. I can't help thinking that every normal value reported may, in fact, be normal only on the average. If results sometimes may be conflicting keep in mind that this may simply be due to the assay used, with parameters such as sensitivity and intra/inter-assay coefficients of variation to be considered, as well as differences in sample preparation and/or composition. In any case, close study of the cited articles will be a MUST.



ADAM8 (disintegrin and metalloprotease domain 8, MS2, CD156)

¥ mean amniotic fluid concentrations in women with preterm delivery: mean 1213.9 [SE 96.7] pg/mL [range, 780-1854 pg/mL]; mean amniotic fluid concentrations in women delivering at term: 937.2 [SE 50.3] pg/mL [range, 486-1508 pg/mL] (Vrachnis et al, 2006)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: August 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

Adiponectin (Adpn, Apn, ACDC, adiponectin, C1q and collagen domain containing, ADIPOQ, apM1, adipose Most abundant gene transcript-1, GBP-28, gelatin-binding protein of 28 kDa, adipocyte complement related protein of 30 kDa, Acrp30, adipocyte-specific secretory protein)

¥ serum levels in uraemic patients on peritoneal dialysis: (mean ± SEM, 48.0 ± 4.5 mg/l; in uraemic patients on haemodialysis: 57.7 ± 4.4 mg/l; in conservative management (controls): 44.4 ± 7.0 mg/l) (Diez et al, 2005)
¥ normal serum values: 46.0 ± 12.0 mg/L; in patients with hyperthyroidism: 27.8 ± 4.0 mg/L; in patients with hypothyroidism: 71.8 ± 16.0 mg/L (Iglesias et al, 2003)
¥ normal serum values: 6.7 ± 1.8 microg/mL; in patients with acromegaly: 4.3 ± 1.8 mg/L (Lam et al, 2004)
¥ serum concentrations in patients with heart failure and cachexia: 23.8 (10.2-37.2) microg/mL; in patients with heart failure and no cachexia: 8.1 (0.5-16.6) microg/mL; in patients with coronary artery disease: 7.1 (0.4-13.5) microg/mL; in healthy controls: 8.7 (2.5-16.8) microg/mL (McEntegart et al, 2007)
¥ serum concentrations in healthy females: 11.40 ± 6.73 micro g/mL; in healthy males: 4.90 ± 2.79 micro g/mL (Yannakoulia M et al, 2003)
¥ serum concentrations in females (moderate drinkers: 15.0 ± 7.2 microg/mL; in non-drinkers: 12.0 ± 6.5 microg/mL (Kotani et al, 2007)
¥ plasma levels in patients with Hypothyroidism: 10.23 ± 0.76 ng/mL; in normal controls: 10.10 ± 0.93 ng/mL (Nagasaki et al, 2005)
¥ serum levels in overweight or obese children before seven-day intensive lifestyle modification (physical activity, dietary modification, and behavioral modificationeducation): 6.50 ± 2.89 ng/mL; in overweight or obese children after seven-day intensive lifestyle modification (physical activity, dietary modification, and behavioral modificationeducation): 7.28 ± 2.98 ng/mL (Lee MK et al, 2010)
¥ mean serum levels in healthy controls: 5.3 ± 1.6 ng/mL; in active Familial mediterranean fever (FMF) patients: 55.3 ± 21.8 ng/mL; in inactive Familial mediterranean fever (FMF) patients: 17.1 ± 4.7 ng/mL (Keskin et al, 2010)
¥ serum levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who engage in low or moderate-intensity physical activities (> 2 h/week): 11.82 ± 3.06 μg/mL; serum levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who do not report any physical activity or report light activities (<2 h/week): 7.81 ± 2.11 μg/mL (Kadoglou et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: October 2012


_____________________________________________________________________________

Adrenomedullin (ADM)

¥ urinary levels in control group: 80.1 ± 33.9 pM/mg creatinine; in patients with renal parenchymal scar and vesicoureteral reflux: 52 ± 7.6 pM/mg creatinine; in patients with renal parenchymal scar without vesicoureteral reflux: 58.6 ± 7.5 pM/mg creatinine; in patients with vesicoureteral reflux without renal parenchymal scar: 44.2 ± 6.4 pM/mg creatinine (Kalman et al, 2005)
¥ plasma levels in control group: 56.2 ± 14.0 pM/mL; in patients with renal parenchymal scar and vesicoureteral reflux: 50.6 ± 4.2 pM/mL); in patients with renal parenchymal scar without vesicoureteral reflux: 49.6 ± 3.7 pM/mL); in patients with vesicoureteral reflux without renal parenchymal scar: 50.6 ± 3.6 pM/mL (Kalman et al, 2005)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: January 2007


_____________________________________________________________________________

alpha-2-macroglobulin (Alpha-2MG, Alpha-2M, A2M)

¥ concentration in umbilical cord blood healthy term neonates at the time of vaginal delivery: 284.6 ± 44.4 mg/dL (Aliyazicioglu et al, 2007)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: January 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

Amylin (islet amyloid polypeptide, insulinoma amyloid polypeptide, IAPP, diabetes-associated peptide, DAP, Amylin-(1-8), Amylin-(8-37), Pramlintide)

¥ total plasma levels in controls: 8.48 ± 3.12 pmol/L; in patients with osteoporosis: 3.33 ± 0.46 pmol/L; in patients with type 2 diabetes: 6.29 ± 1.47 pmol/L. Unreduced amylin plasma levels in controls: 13.50 ± 3.94 pmol/L; in patients with osteoporosis: 2.51 ± 0.87 pmol/L; in patients with type 2 diabetes: 4.15 ± 0.95 pmol/L (Bronsky and Prusa, 2004)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: September 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

amyloid P component (P-component, 9.5S alpha-1-glycoprotein, APCS, serum amyloid P component; amyloid P component, serum, SAP, Serum amyloid P, PTX2, pentraxin-2, PRM-151)

¥ mean serum level in normal individuals: 7.47 mg/dl; no variations with age (4 - 89 years); no significant variations in sera from individuals with various clinical types of amyloidosis, connective tissue diseases, and bacterial pneumonia; mean value in patients with malignancies: 10.79 mg/dl (Skinner et al, 1979)

¥ serum levels in neonates: 1.12 ± 0.82 mg/dl (means ± S.D.); in persons over 80 years: 6.15 ± 0.92 mg/dl (Hashimoto et al, 1997)

¥ serum levels in females (15 - 49 years): 3.32 ± 0.95 mg/dl; in males(15 - 49 years): 5.19 ± 1.25 mg/dl (Hashimoto et al, 1997)

¥ level in women in the follicular phase: 2.61 ± 0.99 mg/dl ; in women in the menstrual phase: 4.36 ± 0.90 mg/dl (Hashimoto et al, 1997)

¥ in post-menopausal women administered conjugated estrogen: prelevel: 5.64 ± 1.40 mg/dl; on day 14: 4.26 ± 0.98 mg/dl (Hashimoto et al, 1997)

¥ in postmenopausal women administered dehydroepiandrosterone: prelevel: 4.97 ± 0.76 mg/dl; on day 21: 6.17 ± 1.20 mg/dl (Hashimoto et al, 1997)

¥ serum levels in women increases with aging from 1.1 ± 0.8mg/dl (mean ± S.D.) to 5.08 ± 1.31mg/dl; level in males significantly higher in the 15 to 50 year age group than in females of similar ages; levels in women significantly higher in the menstrual period; levels in climacteric women after Premarin treatment decrease: from 5.66 ± 1.45mg/dl to 4.15 ± 0.94 mg/dl); levels in climacteric women after after dehydroepiandrosterone therapy: from 4.00 ± 0.74mg/dl to 6.07 ± 1.14mg/dl) (Katou, 1996)
¥ plasma level in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients: 22.4 ± (SD) 7.0 micrograms/mL; in normal controls: 34.4 ± (SD) 6.6 micrograms/mL (Nishiyama et al, 1996)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: August 2012


_____________________________________________________________________________

ANF (Atrial natriuretic factor, atrionatriuretic factor, Alpha-ANP, Atrial natriuretic polypeptide, ANP, Atrial polypeptide, Atriopeptin, cardionatrin, cardionatrin I, NPPA)

¥ median plasma levels in control subjects: 24 fmol/mL; in patients with chronic congestive heart faliure 63 fmol/mL (Cugno et al, 2000)

¥ median serum levels in patients with carcinoid heart disease: 48 ng/L; in patients without carcinoid heart disease: 25 ng/L (Zuetenhorst et al, 2003)
¥ serum levels in normal controls: 75.6 ± 8.2 pg/mL; in patients with essential hypertension: 110.6 ± 15.4 pg/mL (Chudek et al, 1997)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

angiocidin

¥ serum levels in normal controls: undetectable; serum levels in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: 15.09 - 195.73 pg/mL. Patients with stages III-IV: 97 ± 13 pg/mL; patients with stages I-II: 63 ± 37 pg/mL; patients with microsatellite tumor nodules: 98 ± 55 pg/mL; patients without microsatellite nodules: 51 ± 27 pg/mL (Sabherwal et al, 2007)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: August 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

Angiogenin (Angiogenin-1, Ang, Ang-1, RNASE5, ribonuclease A family 5, pancreatic ribonuclease, RNASE1, RNASE1, DIP, degranulation inhibitory protein)

¥ serum levels in patients with untreated Binet stage A B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (median: 295 ng/mL; range: 74-1700) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (median: 264 ng/mL; range: 29-1835) (Molica et al, 2004)
¥ levels in maternal serum: 225.7 ± 49.6 ng/mL; levels in umbilical vein serum: 119.0 ± 34.2 ng/mL; in day 1 neonates: 166.4 ± 44.9 ng/mL; in day 4 neonatal serum: 240.8 ± 52.6 ng/mL (Malamitsi-Puchner et al, 1997)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1, ANGPT1)

¥ serum levels in normal controls: 45.3 ± 11.5 ng/mL; serum levels in patients with hemodialysis: 29.1 ± 12 ng/mL (David et al, 2009)
¥ serum levels in patients with Behet's disease: 284.5 ± 101.2 ng/mL; in serum of age-matched healthy controls: 237.1 ± 76.4 ng/mL (Choe et al, 2010)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2, ANGPT2)

¥ median level in normal pregnant women: 26.61 ng/mL; median level in normal nonpregnant women: 1.71 ng/mL; women who develop severe intrauterine growth restriction have lower levels than normal pregnant controls (Wang et al, 2007)
¥ serum levels in normal controls: 0.88 ± 0.43 ng/mL; in patients with hemodialysis: 8.7 ± 0.64 ng/mL; in patients with peritoneal dialysis: 6.48 ± 8.1 ng/mL (David et al, 2009)
¥ serum levels in patients with Behet's disease: 974.2 ± 679.3 pg/mL; in serum of age-matched healthy controls: 858.3 ± 535.3 pg/mL (Choe et al, 2010)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

angiopoietin-like-4 (ANGPTL4, ARP-4, angiopoietin-related protein-4, FIAF, fasting induced adipose factor, HFARP, hepatic fibrinogen/angiopoietin-related protein, PGAR, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-related protein)

¥ median serum values in healthy individuals and individuals with metabolic syndrome: 8.1-8.7 ng/mL (Stejskal et al, 2008)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: August 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

Apelin (APJ receptor ligand, APJ endogenous ligand, APLN, APEL, Apelin (42-77), Apelin-36, Apelin (65-77), Apelin-13, Apelin-17, Apelin (61-77), Pyr(1)apelin-13)

¥ serum levels in patients with type 2 diabetes: 1.23 ± 1.1 ng/mL; in patients with type 1 diabetes: 0.73 ± 0.39 ng/mL; in normal controls: 0.91 ± 0.7 ng/mL (Cavallo et al, 2012)
¥ mean serum levels in obese asthmatic children: 174.1 ± 5.9 pg/mL; in non-obese asthmatic children: 171.0 ± 4.0 pg/mL; in normal controls: 130.6 ± 2.1 pg/mL (Machura et al, 2013)
¥ plasma levels in hemodialysis patients: 0.80 (0.6) ng/mL; in healthy subjects: 0.83 (0.23) ng/mL (Mafra et al, 2012)
¥ plasma levels in hemodialysis patients: 0.34 ± 0.15 ng/mL; in healthy subjects: 0.24 ± 0.13 ng/mL (Leal et al, 2012)
¥ serum levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who engage in low or moderate-intensity physical activities (> 2 h/week): 1.39 ± 0.65 ng/mL; serum levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who do not report any physical activity or report light activities (<2 h/week): 1.04 ± 0.35 ng/mL (Kadoglou et al, 2012)
¥ maternal serum levels in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus: 13.5 ± 8.3 ng/mL; in control pregnant women: 9.6 ± 5.9 ng/mL (Aslan et al, 2012)

¥ cord blood levels in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus: 8.8 ± 4.3 ng/mL; in control pregnant women: 8.2 ± 1.9 ng/mL (Aslan et al, 2012)
¥ serum levels in patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis: 1.77 ± 1.48 ng/mL; in patients with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis: 1.63 ± 1.51 ng/mL; in control subjects: 1.61 ± 0.44 ng/mL (Aozasa et al, 2013)
¥ plasma levels in hypertensive patients: 265 ± 127 pg/mL; in normal controls: 330 ± 159 pg/mL (Przewlocka-Kosmala et al, 2011)
¥ serum levels in patients with osteoarthritis: 2.18±0.22 ng/mL; in normal serum: 1.31±0.12 ng/mL (Hu et al, 2011)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

BDNF (Brain-derived neurotrophic factor)

¥ serum level is 4.22 ± 0.64) ng/mL in multiple myeloma patients and 2.03 ± 0.38 ng/mL in control group (P = 0.01) (Hu et al, 2005)
¥ mean serum levels in antidepressant-naive patients with major depressive disorders (n = 16) are 17.6 ng/mL (SD, 9.6), 30.6 ng/mL (SD, 12.3) in antidepressant-treated patients (n = 17), and 27.7 ng/mL (SD, 11.4) normal control subjects (n = 50) (Shimizu et al, 2003)
¥ serum values healthy unrelated volunteers (64 male, 54 female, age: 42.1 ± 13.0 years) 16.3 ± 7.3 ng/mL (Lang et al, 2004)
¥ median serum levels: 22.6 ng/mL; median plasma levels: 92.5 pg/mL; median levels in platelets: 92.7 pg/10**6 platelets (Lommatzsch et al, 2005)
¥ mean serum levels in fibromyalgia patients: 19.6 ng/mL; SD 3.1; in healthy controls: 16.8 ng/mL; SD 2.7 (Laske et al, 2007)
¥ serum concentration in Alzheimer's disease patients: 18.6ng/mlL; in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus: 18.1ng/mL; in healthy controls: 21.3ng/mL (Laske et al, 2007)
¥ cerebrospinal fluid concentration in Alzheimer's disease patients: (8/27 cases, mean of 4.6pg/mL); in cerebrospinal fluid of normal pressure hydrocephalus patients: (1/9 cases, mean of 6.4pg/mL; in cerebrospinal fluid of control subjects: (5/10 cases, mean of 1.6pg/mL (Laske et al, 2007)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2008


_____________________________________________________________________________

beta-casomorphin-8

¥ mean plasma level in lactating women: 2.66 nmol/L; in women in late pregnancy: 0.82 nmol/L; in non-pregnant women: 0.32 nmol/L (Nyberg et al, 1989)
¥ mean cerebrospinal fluid levels in lactating women: 0.35 nmol/L; in late pregnancy: 0.22 nmol/L; in non-pregnant women: 0.15 nmol/L (Nyberg et al, 1989)
¥ average level in milk from 5puerperal women: 19.8 nmol/L (Nyberg et al, 1989)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: January 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor, FGF-2, Fibroblast growth factor-2, FGF-beta, Fibroblast growth factor-beta, HBGF-2, heparin binding growth factor-2)

¥ preoperative serum levels in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (Sapienza et al, 2004). Patients with soft plaques: 34 (28-39) pg/mL; patients with hard plaques: 20 (17-22) pg/mL; p<0.001.
¥ serum levels in healthy subjects: 8 pg/mL (7-30); pretreatment median serum levels in myeloma patients: 11.5 pg/mL (8-65) (Kyrtsonis et al, 2004)
¥ serum levels in testicular cancer patients are approximately 7-fold above normal values of 6.5 pg/mL (Aigner et al, 2003)
¥ median serum bFGF level in patients with testicular germ cell tumors is 3.46 pg/mL (range 0-61.6) compared to 0.7 pg/mL (0-11) in the control group. In patients with metastatic disease, the median serum level is 10.3 pg/mL (0-61.6), in contrast to 2.8 pg/mL (0-50) in patients with localized disease. (Bentas et al, 2003).
¥ levels in the vitreous are: median 5.20 ng/L, quartile 15.47 ng/L in 20 normal eyes; median 3.12 ng/L, quartile 10.48 ng/L in 35 eyes with proliferative vitreoretinopathy grade C; median 46.56 ng/L, quartile 113.96 ng/L in 26 eyes with proliferative vitreoretinopathy grade D; median 1.40 ng/L, quartile 6.25 ng/L in 25 vitreous hemorrhage eyes. Mean of serum level is 18.33 ± 3.39 ng/L (Liang et al, 2000)
¥ serum levels in patients with squamous cell oesophageal cancer: 5.2 pg/mL, 1.2-10.6 pg/mL versus 2.06 pg/mL, 0.07-4.0 pg/mL in controls (Wallner et al, 2001)
¥ serum levels in patients with thymic carcinoma: 2740 ± 631 pg/mL; healthy volunteers: 1728 ± 1,192 pg/mL (Sasaki et al, 2001)
¥ concentrations in hematoma fluid of patients with chronic subdural hematoma: 8.7 pg/mL (serum levels: 1.8 pg/mL); values are within range of normal volunteers (Weigel et al, 2001)
¥ median serum level in patients with renal cell carcinoma: 3.0 pg/mL (range <1.0-70.9 pg/mL). Patients with serum bFGF levels above 3.0 pg/mL have a worse prognosis, compared with those with lower levels (Rasmuson et al, 2001)
¥ median serum concentrations in AIDS-KS patients (n = 53): 4.6 pg/mL; in HIV-1-infected patients without KS (n =39): 4.6 pg/mL; in healthy control group (n = 22): 2.2 pg/mL (Ascherl et al, 2001)
¥ median values 4.7 pg/mL in healthy volunteers, 6.2 pg/mL in monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance, 6.3 pg/mL in myeloma stage I, 13.4 pg/mL in stage II, and 21.7 pg/mL in stage III. Median pretreatment values in myeloma patients responding to chemotherapy: 23.9 pg/mL; post-treatment 6.5 pg/mL. (Sezer et al, 2001)
¥ median serum levels in healthy controls: 3.0 (1.5-6.0) pg/mL. In patients with adenocarcinomas: 7.6 (0.5-32.5) pg/mL; in patients with squamous cell carcinomas: 7.4 (0.5-36.7) pg/mL; in patients with small cell carcinomas: 7.1 (0.5-34.8) pg/mL (Ueno et al, 2001)
¥ serum levels in healthy volunteers: 8.14 ± 2.9 pg/mL; in patients with acute myocardial infarction: 7.48 ± 2.3 pg/mL; in patients with acute myocardial infarction 10 days after the onset: 16.82 ± 3.4 pg/mL and 30 days after the onset: 7.07 ± 2.9 pg/mL (Cuevas et al, 1997)
¥ mean serum levels in healthy subjects: 1.28 pg/mL; in patients with prostate cancer: 6.64 pg/mL (Cronauer et al, 1997)
¥ serum levels significantly elevated with progression of liver disease; being 3.67 ± 2.37 in patients with chronic hepatitis, 7.78 ± 6.61 pg/mL in patients with liver cirrhosis, and 12.37 ± 7.67 pg/mL in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (Jin-no et al, 1997)
¥ mean serum levels in control women without cervical cancer: 4.8 ± 6.8 (minimum 0, maximum 29.6) pg/mL; with cervical cancer: 31.3 ± 32.1 (minimum 0, maximum 156.7) pg/mL (Sliutz et al, 1995)
¥ median urine levels in male control subjects: 151 pg/g; in female control subjects: 237 pg/g; combined 90th percentile: 619 pg/g. Median urine level in patients with active local cancers: 312 pg/g; Median urine level in patients with active, metastatic cancers: 479 pg/g and a 90th percentile level of 14143 pg/g. (Nguyen et al, 1994)
¥
plasma levels in healthy controls: mean 0.13 pg/mL, s.e. 0.09 pg/mL; in plasma of patients with eosinophilic esophagitis: mean 81.98 pg/mL, s.e. 17.23 pg/mL (Huang et al, 2010)
¥ plasma levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: 66.9 ± 71.7 [13.4 ± 16.2] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 46.4 ± 49.9 [30.1 ± 40.3] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

BLyS (B-lymphocyte stimulator, BAFF, B-cell activating factor belonging to the TNF family, TALL-1, TNF and ApoL related leukocyte expressed ligand-1, THANK, TNF homolog activating apoptosis nuclear factor-kappaB c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, TNFSF13B, TNF ligand superfamily member 13B, TNFSF20, TNF ligand superfamily member 20, CD257)

¥ serum levels in patients with autoimmune hepatitis: 2.07 ± 1.21 pg/mL; in normal controls: 0.77 ± 0.22 pg/mL (Migita et al, 2007)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2008


_____________________________________________________________________________

BMP9 (bone morphogenetic protein-9, GDF2, growth/differentiation factor-2)

¥ serum/plasma levels in normal subjects: 2-12 ng/mL (David et al, 2008)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2008


_____________________________________________________________________________

Bradykinin

¥ median plasma levels in control subjects: 2.6 fmol/mL; in patients with chronic congestive heart faliure 2.1 fmol/mL (Cugno et al, 2000)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

Calreticulin (CALR, CRT, CRTC, CRP55, 55 kDa calcium binding reticuloplasmin, calregulin, HACBP, high affinity calcium-binding protein, autoantigen Ro, Ro antigen, Sicca syndrome antigen A, SSA antigen)

¥ plasma levels in healthy control subjects: median 2.9 ng/mL, interquartile range 0.9 ng/mL; plasma levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: median 10.3 ng/mL, interquartile range 14.8 ng/mL; in synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: median 10.3 ng/mL, interquartile range 12.0 ng/mL; in plasma of patients with psoriatic arthritis: median 3.1 ng/mL, interquartile range 1.3 ng/mL); in synovial fluid of patients with psoriatic arthritis: median 2.9 ng/mL, interquartile range 0.9 ng/mL) (Tarr et al, 2010).


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2012


_____________________________________________________________________________

Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1, CTF1)

¥ serum levels in healthy volunteers: 571 ± 75 fmol/mL (mean ± SD) (Asai et al, 2000)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

cathepsin L (CTSL, CAL, CATL, MEP, major excreted protein, IL8 converting enzyme, CP-2, cycling protein-2, PTP, prohormone thiol convertase)

¥ serum levels in normal controls: 25.3 ± 2.08 ng/mL; in melanoma patients with no metastatic disease: 20.0 ng/mL (range: 1 1.0-33); in melanoma patients with metastatic disease: 21.0 ng/mL (13.0-35.0) (Kos et al, 1997)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: July 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

CCL1 (CC chemokine ligand 1, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1, SCYA1, I-309, TCA-3, T-cell activation-3, P500, SIS-epsilon)

¥ mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: 360 ± 80 pg/mL; mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from age-matched female healthy volunteers: 240 ± 40 pg/mL (Pacheco-Rodriguez et al, 2009)
¥ levels in bronchoalveolar fluid from asthmatics: (median (range) 193 (120-449) pg/mL; in bronchoalveolar fluid from normal controls: 30 (21-55) pg/mL (Montes-Vizuet et al, 2006)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 1.18 ± 0.75 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 2.17 ± 2.47 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 3.05 ± 2.53 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

CCL2 (GDCF, Glioma-derived monocyte chemotactic factor-2, GDCF-2, HC11, JE, LDCF, MCAF, MCP, monocyte chemoattractant protein, MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, SMC-CF, smooth muscle cell chemotactic factor, TDCF, tumor-derived chemotactic factors, TSG-8, tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene sequence-8, SCYA2)

¥ urinary levels in controls: 260 pg/mL. Urinary levels in patients with bladder cancer: stage T1: 359 pg/mL; stage T2: 967 pg/mL; stage T3: 917 pg/mL; stage T4: 1829 pg/mL. Urinary levels accorting to tumor grade > GI and the existence of distant metastasis (M1): GI 373 pg/mL; GII 661 pg/mL; GIII 1111 pg/mL; M0 644 pg/mL; M1 1379 pg/mL (Amann et al, 1998).
¥ serum levels after acute coronary syndromes of > 238 pg/mL remain independently associated with mortality. Values of > 238 pg/mL after 4 months independently associate with mortality after 4 months. Elevated MCP-1 levels do not identify patients who derived incremental benefit from intensive statin therapy (de Lemos et al, 2007)
¥ plasma levels in hyperhomocysteinemic subjects: 349 (225-491) ng/mL; in normal controls: 386 (226-645) ng/mL (Holven et al, 2002)
¥ concentration in peritoneal fluid of control women: 137 pg/mL (conversion factor to SI unit, 0.115; range, 12 to 418 pg/mL); in women with moderate endometriosis: 205 pg/mL (range 65 to 6,000 pg/mL); in women with severe endometriosis: 1,165 pg/mL (0 to 2,602 pg/mL); in women with untreated endometriosis: 354 pg/mL (range 0 to 6,000 pg/mL); in women receiving GnRH agonist: 128 pg/mL, range 0 to 216 pg/mL (Arici et al, 1997)
¥ plasma baseline levels in patients with Crohn's disease: 126.0 (99.8-127.8) pg/mL; in patients after 13 weeks of daily treatment with 80 mg atorvastatin: 107.9 (90.9-150.8) pg/mL (Grip and Janciauskiene, 2009)
¥ serum levels in insulin-resistant patients: 291 ± 19 pg/mL; in insulin-sensitive human subjects: 343 ± 34 pg/mL (Westerbacka et al, 2008)
¥ in serum from pregnant women (frozen samples): median: 13.5 pg/mL (interquartile range: 6.8-22.5 pg/mL); in term fresh samples: median: 16.4 pg/mL (interquartile range: 12.1-26.8 pg/mL); in early fresh samples: median: 51.4 pg/mL (interquartile range: 33.1-74.0 pg/mL) (Whitcomb et al, 2007)
¥ mean plasma levels [pg/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 20 (10); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 38 (10); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 80 (18); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 34 (12); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 50 (17); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 24 (10); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 8.8 (1.9); with diabetes: 69 (39) (de Jager et al, 2007)
¥ serum levels in hirsute patients: 121 (15-950) pg/mL; in matched controls: 81 (18-365) pg/mL (Glintborg et al, 2009)
¥ serum median levels in chronically-infected HCV patients treated with IFN-alpha plus ribavirin showing early virological response: 124.5 pg/mL [interquartile range: 85.5-177.8 pg/mL]; in patients without early virological response: 122.7 pg/mL [interquartile range: 36.2-133.3 pg/mL]; serum median levels in chronically-infected HCV patients treated with IFN-alpha plus ribavirin showing sustained virological response: 120.9 pg/mL [interquartile range: 85.5-177.8 pg/mL]; in patients without sustained virological response: 124.5 pg/mL [interquartile range: 54.8-135.1 pg/mL] (Moura et al, 2011)
¥ plasma concentrations in hypertensive versus normotensive controls: 175 ± 31 vs. 120 ± 24 pg/mL (Parissis et al, 2002)
¥ levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with chronic bronchitis ((mean ± SD) 10.75 ± 4.04 pg/mL); in smoker control group 12.39 ± 5.87 pg/mL); in healthy exsmokers: 7.12 ± 1.60 pg/mL; in nonsmokers: 6.41 ± 3.87 pg/mL, (Capelli et al, 1999)
¥ mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: 4,710 ± 1,050 pg/mL; mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from age-matched female healthy volunteers: 12,710 ± 3,430 pg/mL (Pacheco-Rodriguez et al, 2009)
¥ serum levels in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with diffuse skin fibrosis with more severe internal organ involvement: 260.2 ± 161 pg/mL; serum levels in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with limited cutaneous involvement: 209.1 ± 111.3 pg/mL; levels in normal controls: 131.5 ± 55.6 pg/mL (Scala et al, 2004)
¥ plasma levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome:233 ± 360 [302 ± 256] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 198 ± 187 [229 ± 297] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 330.58 ± 215.1 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 159.89 ± 141.19 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 208.43 ± 143.9 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

CCL3 (CC chemokine ligand 3, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3, MIP-1-alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein-1-alpha, 464.1, GOS-19-1, L2G25B, LD78, LD78-alpha, SCI, stem cell inhibition factor, stem cell inhibitor, TY5, SCYA3, SCYA3L1)

¥ median value in plasma from non-malignant patients: 1464.8 pg/mL (range: 0 - 10602.2 pg/mL); in patients with gastric carcinoma: 2335.1 pg/mL (range: 0 - 32199 pg/mL) (Rajkumar et al, 2010)
¥ mean serum levels in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with infliximab at pretreatment: 885.20 ± 323.52 pg/mL; after 30 weeks of treatment: 454.65 ± 185.03 pg/mL (Xia et al, 2011)
¥ serum median levels in chronically-infected HCV patients treated with IFN-alpha plus ribavirin showing early virological response: 141.1 pg/mL [interquartile range: 89.1-207.6 pg/mL]; in patients without early virological response: 100.9 pg/mL [interquartile range: 5.0-126.9 pg/mL]; serum median levels in chronically-infected HCV patients treated with IFN-alpha plus ribavirin showing sustained virological response: 103.3 pg/mL [interquartile range: 89.1-207.6 pg/mL]; in patients without sustained virological response: 108 pg/mL [interquartile range: 0-169.5 pg/mL] (Moura et al, 2011)
¥ serum levels in patients with lymphoid malignancy: 97.9 pg/mL ± 171.1 pg/mL; in normal controls: 2.5 pg/mL ± 2.2 pg/mL; in patients with multiple myeloma: 192.3 pg/mL ± 156.6 pg/mL; in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: 78.7 pg/mL ± 115.9 pg/mL; in patients with lymphoma: 65.9 pg/mL ± 196.5 pg/mL (Hamed and Zaki, 2007)
¥ serum levels in insulin-resistent patients and insulin-sensitive patients: under the detection limit of the assay (46.9 pg/mL) (Westerbacka et al, 2008)
¥ in serum from pregnant women (frozen samples): median: 10.4 pg/mL (interquartile range: 6.8-19.9 pg/mL); in term fresh samples: median: 1.1 pg/mL (interquartile range: 0-3.9 pg/mL); in early fresh samples: median: 4.7 pg/mL (interquartile range: 3.3-6.6 pg/mL) (Whitcomb et al, 2007)
¥ Plasma values in patients with Gaucher disease: median 78 pg/mL (range 21-550 pg/m); in normal controls: median 9 pg/mL (range 0-208 pg/mL) (van Breemen et al, 2007)
¥ mean plasma levels [pg/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 56 (15); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 85 (39); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 1416 (378); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 440 (225); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 1099 (749); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 126 (45); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 881 (358); with diabetes: 168 (31) (de Jager et al, 2007)
¥ serum levels in hirsute patients: 179 (8-4202) pg/mL; in matched controls: 103 (4-1598) pg/mL (Glintborg et al, 2009)
¥ plasma concentrations in hypertensive versus normotensive controls: 23 ± 4 vs. 15 ± 2 pg/mL (Parissis et al, 2002)
¥ CCL3 levels undetectable in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with chronic bronchitis, in smoker control group, in healthy exsmokers, in nonsmokers (Capelli et al, 1999)
¥ mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: 1,510 ± 340 pg/mL; mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from age-matched female healthy volunteers: 1,470 ± 230 pg/mL (Pacheco-Rodriguez et al, 2009)
¥ levels in joint fluid samples of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: 2.59 ± 1.10ng/mL, ranging from 4.16 to 0.80ng/mL); levels in paired serum samples: 0.50 ± 0.18ng/mL, ranging from 0.22 to 0.79ng/mL) (Wang et al, 2004)
¥ serum levels in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with diffuse skin fibrosis with more severe internal organ involvement: 11.1 ± 16.6 pg/mL; serum levels in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with limited cutaneous involvement: 7.7 ± 15.8 pg/mL; levels in normal controls: 11.1 ± 16.6 pg/mL (Scala et al, 2004)
¥ plasma levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: 3.3 ± 8.9 [0.0 ± 0.0] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 1.45 ± 3.98 [0.09 ± 0.41] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 104.55 ± 50.05 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 102.76 ± 47.37 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 142.63 ± 145.29 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

CCL4 (CC chemokine ligand 4, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4, SCYA4, ACT-2, Immune activation gene-2, 744.1, G26, H400, HC21, Cytokine 21, human, LAG-1, lymphocyte activation gene-1, MIP-1-beta, macrophage inflammatory protein-1-beta, SIS-gamma)

¥ plasma baseline levels in patients with Crohn's disease: 526.1 (404.0-723.0) pg/mL; in patients after 13 weeks of daily treatment with 80 mg atorvastatin: 463.5 (316.0-560.7) pg/mL (Grip and Janciauskiene, 2009)
¥ median value in plasma from non-malignant patients: 43 pg/mL (range: 0 - 440.1 pg/mL); in patients with gastric carcinoma: 127.9 pg/mL (range: 0 - 2138.5 pg/mL) (Rajkumar et al, 2010)
¥ Plasma values in patients with Gaucher disease: median 201 pg/mL (range 59-647 pg/mL); in normal controls: median 17 pg/mL (range 1-41 pg/mL). Lack of reduction of plasma MIP-1-beta below 85 pg/mL during 5 years of therapy is observed in patients with ongoing skeletal disease (van Breemen et al, 2007)
¥ CCL4 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with chronic bronchitis: 8.11 ± 5.97 pg/mL; in smokers: 3.57 ± 2.90 pg/mL; in exsmokers: 3.43 ± 0.68 pg/mL; in nonsmokers 3.39 ± 3.73 pg/mL (Capelli et al, 1999)
¥ mean mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: 1,290 ± 360 pg/mL; mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from age-matched female healthy volunteers: 1,730 ± 270 pg/mL (Pacheco-Rodriguez et al, 2009)
¥ plasma levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: 83.3 ± 56.2 [124 ± 84.3] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 89.5 ± 42.2 [82.3 ± 49.1] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 92.98 ± 113.34 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 145.33 ± 243.96 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 58.69 ± 36.4 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

CCL5 (RANTES, EoCP-1, Eosinophil chemotactic polypeptide-1, SIS-delta, TCP228, T-cell-specific protein p228, SCYA5)

¥ serum levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome: 18.6 ± 3.7 ng/mL; in normal controls: 52.1 ± 4.6 ng/mL (Nomura et al, 2003)
¥ serum levels in patients with acute viral respiratory infection in the recovery phase: 132 ± 76 pg/mL; in the acute phase: 52 ± 25 pg/mL (Kawasaki et al, 2006)
¥ median plasma level in patients with hyperhomocysteinemia: 5.3 ng/mL; in normal controls: 3.5 ng/mL (Sun et al, 2005)
¥ plasma levels in hyperhomocysteinemic subjects: 63 (30-200) ng/mL; in normal controls: 91 (17-125) ng/mL (Holven et al, 2002)
¥ serum concentrations in normal patients in relation to -28C> G and -403G> A promoter polymorphisms. G/G: 44.7 ± 3.3 ng/ml; G/A: 36.5 ± 2.0 ng/ml; A/A: 28.7 ± 2.5 ng/ml; serum concentrations in non-diabetic patients with coronary artery disease in relation to -28C> G and -403G> A promoter polymorphisms. G/G: 50.9 ± 3.0 ng/ml; G/A: 42.2 ± 2.6 ng/ml; A/A: 41.3 ± 4.4 ng/ml; serum concentrations in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease in relation to -28C> G and -403G> A promoter polymorphisms. G/G: 58.5 ± 3.5 ng/ml; G/A: 49.6 ± 4.1 ng/ml; A/A: 42.2 ± 4.3 ng/ml; P<0.05) (Jang et al, 2007)
¥
in serum from pregnant women (frozen samples): median: 5020 pg/mL (interquartile range: 3992-6460 pg/mL); in term fresh samples: median: 1995 pg/mL (interquartile range: 1505-2585 pg/mL); in early fresh samples: median: 3905 pg/mL (interquartile range: 3560-4707 pg/mL) (Whitcomb et al, 2007)
¥ mean plasma levels [ng/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 63 (0.4); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 63 (7.5); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 142 (38); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 56 (12); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 85 (13); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 61 (9.2); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 74 (11); with diabetes: 49 (14) (de Jager et al, 2007)
¥ plasma concentrations in hypertensive versus normotensive controls: 17 ± 4 vs. 14 ± 3 ng/mL (Parissis et al, 2002)
¥ mean mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: 420 ± 90 pg/mL; mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from age-matched female healthy volunteers: 610 ± 90 pg/mL (Pacheco-Rodriguez et al, 2009)
¥ serum levels in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with diffuse skin fibrosis with more severe internal organ involvement: 9337.6 ± 6917.5 pg/mL; serum levels in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with limited cutaneous involvement: 9171 ± 9192 pg/mL; levels in normal controls: 10477 ± 18874 pg/mL (Scala et al, 2004)
¥ plasma levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: 5,710 ± 12,500 [10,400 ± 16,900] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 9,790 ± 16,500 [7,420 ± 10,500] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 31512.35 ± 49660.17 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 26451.5 ± 51415.45 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 8215.69 ± 10452.01 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

CCL7 (CC chemokine ligand 7, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7, SCYA7, MCP-3, monocyte chemoattractant protein-3, FIC, Fibroblast-inducible cytokine, NC28, MARC, mast cell activation-related chemokine)

¥ mean mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: 280 ± 60 pg/mL; mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from age-matched female healthy volunteers: 210 ± 40 pg/mL (Pacheco-Rodriguez et al, 2009)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 419.26 ± 878.89 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 635.5 ± 1020.53 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 207.36 ± 648.02 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

CCL8 (CC chemokine ligand 8, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8, SCYA8, MCP-2, monocyte monocyte chemoattractant protein-2, HC14, Cytokine 14, human)

¥ mean mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: 420 ± 90 pg/mL; mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from age-matched female healthy volunteers: 290 ± 60 pg/mL (Pacheco-Rodriguez et al, 2009)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 31.21 ± 11.81 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 28.63 ± 14.9 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 26.54 ± 10.32 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

CCL11 (SCYA11, Eotaxin, Eotaxin-1)

¥ mean plasma levels in asthma patients: 176.52 ± 50.3 (range 89-288); in healthy controls: and 101.42 ± 49.4 (range 35-206) (Jahnz-Rozyk et al, 2000)
¥ plasma level in healthy controls 175.8 ± 49.3 pg/mL (Jahnz-Rozyk et al, 2000)
¥ plasma baseline levels in patients with Crohn's disease: 526.1 (404.0-723.0) pg/mL; in patients after 13 weeks of daily treatment with 80 mg atorvastatin: 463.5 (316.0-560.7) pg/mL (Grip and Janciauskiene, 2009)
¥ mean plasma levels [pg/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 10 (2.9); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 55 (26); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 80 (24); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 60 (24); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 44 (16); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 26 (13); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 6.3 (2.5); with diabetes: 15 (14) (de Jager et al, 2007)
¥ serum median levels in chronically-infected HCV patients treated with IFN-alpha plus ribavirin showing early virological response: 259.1 pg/mL [interquartile range: 239.4-304.9 pg/mL]; in patients without early virological response: 216.6 pg/mL [interquartile range: 168-273 pg/mL]; serum median levels in chronically-infected HCV patients treated with IFN-alpha plus ribavirin showing sustained virological response: 239.4 pg/mL [interquartile range: 174.4-273.1 pg/mL]; in patients without sustained virological response: 220.1 pg/mL [interquartile range: 167.9-265.6 pg/mL] (Moura et al, 2011)
¥ mean mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: 1,050 ± 380 pg/mL; mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from age-matched female healthy volunteers: 490 ± 100 pg/mL (Pacheco-Rodriguez et al, 2009)
¥ plasma levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: 74.5 ± 41.1 [66.9 ± 22.4] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 60.1 ± 68.4 [52.2 ± 32.3] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 285.46 ± 137.68 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 350.75 ± 142.78 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 255.19 ± 130.16 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

CCL13 (CC chemokine ligand 13, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 13, MCP-4, Monocyte chemotactic protein-4, NCC1, new CC chemokine-1, Ck-beta-10, Chemokine-beta-10, SCYL1, SCYA13)

¥ plasma baseline levels in patients with Crohn's disease: 450.6 (140.7-584.2) pg/mL; in patients after 13 weeks of daily treatment with 80 mg atorvastatin: 272.6 (117.9-693.1) pg/mL (Grip and Janciauskiene, 2009)
¥ mean mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: 270 ± 90 pg/mL; mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from age-matched female healthy volunteers: 230 ± 60 pg/mL (Pacheco-Rodriguez et al, 2009)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 67.6 ± 45.48 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 66.43 ± 52.64 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 51.64 ± 39.86 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

CCL15 (CC chemokine ligand 15, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 15, HCC2, hemofiltrate CC-Chemokine-2, NCC3, new CC chemokine-3, MIP-5, macrophage inflammatory protein-5, Lkn-1, leukotactin-1, MIP-1-delta, macrophage inflammatory protein-1-delta, HMRP-2B, human MIP-related protein 2B, SCYL3, SCYA15)

¥ median value in plasma from non-malignant patients: 6628.8 pg/mL (range: 1238.8 - 13178.1 pg/mL); in patients with gastric carcinoma: 5577.9 pg/mL (range: 696.3 - 11054.4 pg/mL) (Rajkumar et al, 2010)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 3480.46 ± 2419.69 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 3895.58 ± 2282.9 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 4037.31 ± 3750.0 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

CCL17 (SCYA17, TARC, Thymus and Activation Regulated Chemokine, ABCD-2)

¥ as defined in healthy donors (mean value ± 2x SD), a TARC level of > 500 pg/mL is considered elevated. Median TARC levels of all patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma at baseline: 5,803 pg/mL (range, 116-73,074 pg/mL); after completed primary treatment: 663 pg/mL (50-24,709 pg/mL) (Weihrauch et al, 2005)
¥ plasma baseline levels in patients with Crohn's disease: 446.4 (266.1-708.8) pg/mL; in patients after 13 weeks of daily treatment with 80 mg atorvastatin: 380.3 (211.4-537.5) pg/mL (Grip and Janciauskiene, 2009)
¥
median serum concentration (upper/lower quartile) in patients below 10 years old with atopic dermatitis: 405.2 pg/mL (294.4 pg/mL / 729.9 pg/mL); in normal controls for this group: 620.1 pg/mL (369.9 pg/mL / 889.2 pg/mL); median serum concentration (upper/lower quartile) in patients over 10 years old with atopic dermatitis: 357.6 (257.4/547.3); in normal controls for this group: 178.3 (132.8/304.9) (Narbutt et al, 2009)
¥ mean plasma levels [pg/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 44 (24); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 109 (47); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 107 (23); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 33 (8.8); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 65 (16); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 91 (31); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 44 (24); with diabetes: 61 (46) (de Jager et al, 2007)
¥ umbilical cord serum levels in neonates destined to develop atopic dermatitis in infancy: median 1586.9 pg/mL; in umbilical cord serum levels in neonates without signs of atopic dermatitis during infancy: median 819.6pg/mL; serum levels in mothers with atopic dermatitis: median 909.6 pg/mL; serum levels in mothers without atopic dermatitis: 214.1 pg/mL; high umbilical cord serum levels of CCL17 associated with infantile atopic dermatitis development in 62 neonates born to mothers without atopic dermatitis (median 1514.4 vs. 740.6pg/mL) and 38 neonates born to mothers with no allergies (median 1624.2 vs. 740.6 pg/mL) (Miyahara et al, 2011)
¥ serum levels in tuberculosis patients: 249.8 ± 19.91 pg/mL; in normal controls: 143.9 ± 10.54 pg/mL (Feng et al, 2011)
¥ mean mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: 290 ± 60 pg/mL; mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from age-matched female healthy volunteers: 290 ± 50 pg/mL (Pacheco-Rodriguez et al, 2009)
¥ serum levels in healthy controls: 685 pg/ml ± 430; serum levels taken prior to lung transplantation: 605 pg/mL ± 380; levels below 325 pg/mlLin the first month post-transplantation can predict development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome post-transplantation (Paantjens AW et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 99.94 ± 67.16 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 110.95 ± 106.14 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 79.27 ± 80.2 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

CCL18 (AMAC-1, alternative activated macrophage associated CC-Chemokine, PARC, pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine, MIP-4, macrophage inflammatory protein-4, DC-CK1, dendritic cell-derived chemokine-1, Ck-beta-7, Met-chemokine-beta-7, Met-Ck-beta-7, SCYA18)

¥ In ascitic fluids from patients with ovarian carcinoma: 120.0 ng/mL; in nonovarian carcinoma patients: 44 ng/mL (Schutyser et al, 2002)
¥ mean plasma levels [ng/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 40 (5.2); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 24 (5.0); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 49 (15.2); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 35 (6.6); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 47 (23); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 29 (8.5); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 42 (8.7); with diabetes: 36 (11) (de Jager et al, 2007)
¥ serum levels in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: 105 ng/mL; in smokers: 81 ng/mL; in lifetime nonsmokers without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: 80 ng/mL (Sin et al, 2011)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: June 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

CCL19 (CC chemokine ligand 19, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19, ELC, EBI-1-Ligand Chemokine, Exodus-3, MIP-3-beta, macrophage inflammatory protein-3-beta, Ck-beta-11, Chemokine-beta-11, SCYA19)

¥ mean serum levels in women with preterm delivery: 70.4 ± 31.7 pg/mL; in preterm gravidas not in labor: 123 ± 34 pg/mL; in labor at term: 118 ± 25.6 pg/mL (Laudanski et al, 2006)
¥ mean mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: 1,730 ± 550 pg/mL; mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from age-matched female healthy volunteers: 550 ± 140 pg/mL (Pacheco-Rodriguez et al, 2009)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: June 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

CCL20 (CC chemokine ligand 20, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20, SCYA20, LARC, Liver and Activation Regulated Chemokine, Exodus, Exodus-1, MIP-3-alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein-3-alpha, Ck-beta-4, Chemokine-beta-4, ST38)

¥ serum levels in controls: mean: 7.4 pg/mL; SD 5.4; median 6.99 (min: 0.7, max: 21.57); levels are not significantly higher in patients with in multiple sclerosis patients before and after 5-day treatment with methylprednisolone (Michałowska-Wender et al, 2008)
¥ median value in plasma from non-malignant patients: 139.9 pg/mL (range: 0 - 1994.1 pg/mL); in patients with gastric carcinoma: 654.6 pg/mL (range: 0 - 12013.1 pg/mL) (Rajkumar et al, 2010)
¥ median serum concentration (upper/lower quartile) in patients below 10 years old with atopic dermatitis: 7.8 pg/mL (7.6 pg/mL / 13.1 pg/mL); in normal controls for this group: 8.3 pg/mL (7.8 pg/mL / 35.1 pg/mL); median serum concentration (upper/lower quartile) in patients over 10 years old with atopic dermatitis: 7.4 (7.1/7.9); in normal controls for this group: 6.9 (5.9/7.8) (Narbutt et al, 2009)
¥ serum levels in patients with chronic viral hepatitis: 39.0 ± 28.9 pg/mL; in control subjects: 15.6 ± 4.9 pg/mL; in patients with severe degree of hepatitis: 49.6 ± 49.2 pg/mL; in patients with moderate degree of hepatitis: 50.9 ± 27.1 pg/mL; in patients with mild disease: 16.0 ± 6.8 pg/mL (Yamauchi et al, 2002)
¥ mean mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: 860 ± 380 pg/mL; mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from age-matched female healthy volunteers: 680 ± 170 pg/mL (Pacheco-Rodriguez et al, 2009)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 22.8 ± 7.56 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 21.09 ± 9.52 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 23.49 ± 7.92 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)

Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

CCL21 (CC chemokine ligand 21, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21, SCYA21, 6Ckine, chemokine with 6 cysteines, Ck-beta-9, Chemokine-beta-9, Exodus-2, SLC, Secondary Lymphoid-Tissue Chemokine, TCA-4, T-cell activation-4)

¥ median serum concentration (upper/lower quartile) in patients below 10 years old with atopic dermatitis: 158.1 pg/mL (108.8 pg/mL / 234.9 pg/mL); in normal controls for this group: 175.5 pg/mL (85.5 pg/mL / 243.3 pg/mL); median serum concentration (upper/lower quartile) in patients over 10 years old with atopic dermatitis: 158.1 pg/mL (126.9 pg/mL / 209.8 pg/mL); in normal controls for this group: 160.7 pg/mL (140.4 pg/mL / 188.4 pg/mL) (Narbutt et al, 2009)
¥ mean mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: 1,520 ± 390 pg/mL; mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from age-matched female healthy volunteers: 1,760 ± 410 pg/mL (Pacheco-Rodriguez et al, 2009)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: June 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

CCL22 (CC chemokine ligand 22, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22, ABCD-1, DC/B-Ck, dendritic cell/B-cell derived chemokine, MDC, Human macrophage-derived chemokine STCP-1, stimulated T-cell chemotactic protein, SCYA22)

¥ plasma baseline levels in patients with Crohn's disease: 7728.2 (5755.5-9901.1) pg/mL; in patients after 13 weeks of daily treatment with 80 mg atorvastatin: 6544.3 (3671.1-9598.1) pg/mL (Grip and Janciauskiene, 2009)
¥ median serum concentrations in men with with abdominal aortic aneurysm: 0.69 ng/mL; in controls: 0.56 ng/mL (Golledge et al, 2010)
¥ median serum concentration (upper/lower quartile) in patients below 10 years old with atopic dermatitis: 1147.5 pg/mL (908.6 pg/mL / 1395.3 pg/mL); in normal controls for this group: 1410.2 pg/mL (1010.5 pg/mL / 1612.8 pg/mL); median serum concentration (upper/lower quartile) in patients over 10 years old with atopic dermatitis: 1152.5 (945.3/1390.5); in normal controls for this group: 606.1 (571.3/726.1) (Narbutt et al, 2009)
¥ mean plasma levels [pg/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 389 (52); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 1378 (1009); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 1703 (385); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 483 (129); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 1430 (758); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 452 (112); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 1264 (911); with diabetes: 233 (139) (de Jager et al, 2007)
¥ serum levels in tuberculosis patientsL; 579.9 ± 16.42 pg/mL; in normal controls: 556.5 ± 15.29 pg/mL (Feng et al, 2011)
¥ mean mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: 560 ± 220 pg/mL; mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from age-matched female healthy volunteers: 460 ± 80 pg/mL (Pacheco-Rodriguez et al, 2009)
¥ serum levels in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with diffuse skin fibrosis with more severe internal organ involvement: 554 ± 223.1 pg/mL; serum levels in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with limited cutaneous involvement: 454 ± 142.9 pg/mL; levels in normal controls: 892.1 ± 465 pg/mL (Scala et al, 2004)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: June 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

CCL23 (CC chemokine ligand 23, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 23, MIP-3, macrophage inflammatory protein-3, MPIF-1, Myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor-1, Ck-beta-8, Chemokine-beta-8, SCYA23)

¥ serum levels in healthy individuals: 94.1 ± 85.6 pg/m; in patients with systemic sclerosis: 389.1 ± 199.2 pg/mL; in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: 43.4 ± 39.3 pg/mL; on patients with dermatomyositis: 132.1 ± 104.5 pg/mL (Yanaba et al, 2011)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: June 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

CCL24 (CC chemokine ligand 24, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24, MPIF-2, Myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor-2, Ck-beta-6, Chemokine-beta-6, eotaxin-2, SCYA24)

¥ serum median levels in chronically-infected HCV patients treated with IFN-alpha plus ribavirin showing early virological response: 690.4 pg/mL [interquartile range: 346.2-1050.1 pg/mL]; in patients without early virological response: 686.6 pg/mL [interquartile range: 429.5-1228.6 pg/mL]; serum median levels in chronically-infected HCV patients treated with IFN-alpha plus ribavirin showing sustained virological response: 806.5 pg/mL [interquartile range: 610.4-1050.1 pg/mL]; in patients without sustained virological response: 690.5 pg/mL [interquartile range: 390-1132 pg/mL] (Moura et al, 2011)

¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 243.91 ± 123.1 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 292.55 ± 220.48 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 242.46 ± 211.52 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

CCL26 (CC chemokine ligand 26, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 26, Eotaxin-3, IMAC, MIP-4-alpha, MIP-4a, chemokine N1, macrophage inflammatory protein-4-alpha, TSC-1, thymic stroma chemokine-1, SCYA26)

¥ plasma baseline levels in patients with Crohn's disease: 43.5 (41.4-45.7) pg/mL; in patients after 13 weeks of daily treatment with 80 mg atorvastatin: 31.8 (23.1-34.3) pg/mL (Grip and Janciauskiene, 2009)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 58.69 ± 45.71 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 58.67 ± 29.58 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 41.64 ± 23.68 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

CCL27 (CC chemokine ligand 27, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 27, ALP, CTACK, cutaneous T-cell attracting chemokine, ESkine, Embryonic stem cell chemokine, ILC, interleukin-11 receptor alpha-locus chemokine, IL11Ralpha-locus chemokine, PESKY, skinkine, SCYA27)

¥ median serum concentration (upper/lower quartile) in patients below 10 years old with atopic dermatitis: 463.5 pg/mL (406.1 pg/mL / 519.6 pg/mL); in normal controls for this group: 406.6 pg/mL (326.8 pg/mL / 452.9 pg/mL); median serum concentration (upper/lower quartile) in patients over 10 years old with atopic dermatitis: 487.1 pg/mL (367.1 pg/mL / 628.3 pg/mL); in normal controls for this group: 385.0 pg/mL (342.7 pg/mL / 544.3 pg/mL) (Narbutt et al, 2009)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 617.55 ± 200.76 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 567.09 ± 145.26 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 607.11 ± 222.71 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

CD5L (CD5-like, SP-alpha, AIM, apoptosis inhibitor expressed by macrophages, API6, Apoptosis inhibitor 6)

¥ serum levels in patients with alcoholic liver disease or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: 236 ± 223 ng/mL; serum levels in cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (218 ± 221 ng/mL); serum levels in cirrhotic patients without hepatocellular carcinoma: 194 ± 166 ng/mL (Gray et al, 2009)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2012


_____________________________________________________________________________

CD14 (soluble) (endotoxin receptor, Leu M3, LPS-R, Mo2, MY4, myeloid cell-specific leucine-rich glycoprotein)

¥ serum levels in healthy blood donors: 1.7 (1.5-1.9) microg/mL; 2.9 (2.3-3.2) microg/mL in patients with crystal-induced arthritis; 2.4 (1.9-2.7) microg/mL in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; 2.1 (1.6-2.5) microg/mL in patients with reactive arthritis (Bas et al, 2004)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

CD30 (soluble) (Ki-1, Ki-2, R4-4, Ber H2 antigen, TNFRSF8, TNF receptor superfamily member 8)

¥ serum levels in tuberculosis patients: 7.78 ± 0.44 ng/mL; in normal controls: 4.93 ± 0.23 ng/mL (Feng et al, 2011)
¥ plasma levels in EBV seropositive healthy controls (N=90): median 15.7ng/mL; plasma levels in acute infectious mononucleosis patients (n=90): median 242.9ng/mL; plasma levels in patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease: median 94ng/mL; plasma levels in non-post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease heart/lung transplant recipients (N=30): median 27ng/mL ( Haque et al, 2011)
¥ average serum levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: 149.74 ± 63.85 ng/mL (149.25 ± 66.83 ng/mlL in active patients; 150.3 ± 62.65 ng/mL in inactive patients); average levels in healthy controls: 79.49 ± 22.93 ng/mL (Dong et al, 2010)
¥ serum levels in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with diffuse skin fibrosis with more severe internal organ involvement: 42.1 ± 64.2 pg/mL; serum levels in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with limited cutaneous involvement: 18.2 ± 19.9 pg/mL; levels in normal controls: 10.7 ± 13.9 pg/mL (Scala et al, 2004)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

CD54 (soluble form) (7F7, BB2, human rhinovirus receptor, ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, IFN-gamma regulated human melanoma-associated antigen, Ly47, MALA-2, Me14-D12, P3.58)

¥ serum levels of soluble ICAM-1 in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma before, during, and after radiation therapy (5-year follow-up period). Before radiotherapy: 369.6 ± 123.7 ng/mL; after radiotherapy: 225.9 ± 124.3 ng/mL; in patients with recurrence: 512.5 ± 271.2 ng/mL; in patients who died: 542.6 ± 245.4 ng/mL; in patients with no recurrence 217.9 ± 116.4 ng/mL; in survivors: 209.4 ± 167.2 ng/mL (Yu et al, 2004)
¥ serum levels of circulating ICAM-1 in HIV-1-infected children: 596 ± 41 ng/mL; 295 ± 17 ng/mL in HIV-1-uninfected age-matched controls (Obregon et al, 1996)
¥ serum levels of soluble ICAM-1 in children: 147.8 ng/mL (SD 57); in children 6-10 years after an infection with Respiratory syncytial virus 170.2 ng/mL (SD 63) (Juntti et al, 2005)
¥ Serum levels in normal pregnancy in first trimester: 95.7 ± 14.5 ng/mL; in second trimester: 105.8 ± 15.7 ng/mL; in third trimester: 110.4 ± 15.1 ng/mL. Serum levels in pregnancies with women suffering from pregnancy-induced hypertension in first trimester: 126.4 ± 24.2 ng/mL; in second trimester: 127.8 ± 26.7 ng/mL; in third trimester: 149.0 ± 23.2 ng/mL (Matsubara et al, 2003)
¥ mean serum level of sICAM-1 in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: 313 ng/mL; levels in healthy controls: 237 ng/mL (Kaptur et al, 2001).
¥ median serum levels in HIV-seronegative controls: 294 ng/mL, range of 185-408 ng/mL); median levels in HIV-1-infected persons: 487 ng/mL, range of 231-1,524 ng/mL) (Most et al, 1993)
¥ mean plasma levels [ng/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 159 (5.9); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 145 (10); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 158 (24); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 185 (134); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 173 (24); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 161 (14); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 228 (44); with diabetes: 131 (27) (de Jager et al, 2007)
¥ plasma concentrations in hypertensive versus normotensive controls: soluble) (235 ± 39 vs. 187 ± 21 ng/mL (Parissis et al, 2002)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

CD85e (LILRA3, leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily A member 3, ILT6, immunoglobulin-like transcript 6, LIR4, leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor 4, HM43/HM31, Monocyte inhibitory receptor HM43/HM31, HM43, HM31)

¥ serum concentrations in healthy subjects: 2700 ± 300 pg/mL; in serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: 11700 ± 2951 pg/mL; in serum of patients with gout: 6000 ± 100 pg/mL; in patients with osteoarthritis: 1700 ± 324 pg/mL (An et al, 2010)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2012


_____________________________________________________________________________

CD163 (soluble) (Ber-MAC3, GHI/61, HbSR, hemoglobin scavenger receptor, hemoglobin/haptoglobin scavenger receptor, Ki-M8, M130, p155, Mac 2-48, RM3/1, SM4)

¥ serum levels in pregnant women with a previous spontaneous preterm: median 2.4 mg/L; range, 0.86-6.85 mg/L (Vogel et al, 2006)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

CD106 (soluble form) (alpha-4-beta-1 ligand, INCAM-110, inducible cellular adhesion molecule 110 kDa, VCAM-1, vascular cellular adhesion molecule 1)

¥ intravitreous concentration of VCAM-1 in diabetic patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy compared with control subjects (26 ng/mL [19-118] versus 22 ng/mL [20-47]). After adjusting for total intravitreous proteins, VCAM-1 is significantly lower in diabetic patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy than in control subjects (8.2 ng/mL [4-31.4] vs. 43.1 ng/mL [9.7-100], P < 0.001). (Hernandez et al, 2001)
¥ mean serum level of sVCAM-1 in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: 624 ng/mL; levels in healthy controls: 435 ng/mL (Kaptur et al, 2001)
¥ serum levels in healthy controls: 446.8 ± 139.2 ng/mL; in pediatric patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: 608 ± 76 ng/mL; in patients with Henoch-Schonlein purpura: 501.9 ± 63.3 ng/mL) (Gattorno et al, 2000)
¥ mean plasma levels [pg/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 566 (31); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 776 (177); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 739 (63); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 733 (63); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 984 (299); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 656 (58); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 723 (104); with diabetes: 542 (91) (de Jager et al, 2007)
¥ plasma concentrations in hypertensive versus normotensive controls: soluble (684 ± 42 vs. 589 ± 23 ng/mL (Parissis et al, 2002)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2007


_____________________________________________________________________________

CD163 (soluble) (Ber-MAC3, GHI/61, HbSR, hemoglobin scavenger receptor, hemoglobin/haptoglobin scavenger receptor, Ki-M8, M130, p155, Mac 2-48, RM3/1, SM4)

¥ serum levels in pregnant women with a previous spontaneous preterm: median 2.4 mg/L; range, 0.86-6.85 mg/L (Vogel et al, 2006)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

CD307 (soluble)
(FCRL5, Fc receptor-like-5, FCRH5, Fc receptor homolog 5, IRTA2, Immunoglobulin superfamily receptor translocation associated 2, BXMAS1)

¥ serum levels from normal donors: median 169 ng/mL and 146 ng/mL (measured with two different ELISA assays) without correlations to gender or age; in sera from patients with hairy cell leukemia: medians 719 ng/mL and 754 ng/mL (measured with two different ELISA assays) (Ise et al, 2006)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: September 2010


_____________________________________________________________________________

CD326 (17-1A antigen, AUAI antigen, CO17-1A, EGP, epithelial glycoprotein, EGP-2, epithelial glycoprotein-2, EGP40, epithelial glycoprotein 40, ESA, epithelial surface antigen, EGP314, panepithelial glycoprotein 314, EGP34, epithelial glycoprotein 34, Ep-CAM, epithelial cellular adhesion molecule, GA733-2 antigen, gastrointestinal tumor-associated antigen 2, KS1/4 antigen, KSA, M4S1, membrane component chromosome 4 surface marker-1, MIC18, MK-1, TACSTD1, tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 1, TROP1, HEA125, Ly74, lymphocyte antigen 74, MH99, MOC31, 289A, 323/A3)

¥ median value in plasma from non-malignant patients: 1789.8 pg/mL (range 0 - 13627.3 pg/mL); in patients with gastric carcinoma: 3527.1 pg/mL (range: 0 - 35009.2 pg/mL (Rajkumar et al, 2010)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: July 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

ceruloplasmin (Cp, ferroxidase, Fe(II) - oxygen oxidoreductase, iron (II) - oxygen oxidoreductase, EC1.16.3.1, Ran-2 antigen, rat neural antigen-2, PACAP(1-38) binding factor, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide1-38-binding factor)

¥ concentration in umbilical cord blood healthy term neonates at the time of vaginal delivery: 14.6 ± 4.0 mg/dL (Aliyazicioglu et al, 2007)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: January 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

chromogranin A (CGA, CHGA, granin A, Parathyroid secretory protein-1, Parathyroid secretory protein, PSP, PSP1, pituitary secretory protein-1, Secretory protein-1, SG-I)

¥ plasma levels in patients with atrophic body gastritis and carcinoids: 58.1 (44.5-65.3) U/l); plasma levels in patients with ECL cell hyperplasia/dysplasia: 35.5 (31.8-48.65) U/l) (Peracchi et al, 2005)
¥ plasma levels in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy: 153.7 ± 158.5 ng/mL; patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: 150.2 ± 86.7 ng/mL; in controls: 64.1 ± 17.9 ng/mL (Pieroni et al, 2007)

Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: September 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

Collectin-11 (COLEC11, CL-11, collectin kidney protein 1, CL-K1)

¥ concentration in human plasma: 2.1 μg/mlL (Hansen et al, 2010)
¥ mean serum concentration in 100 Danish blood donors: 284 ng/mL (95 % confidence interval of 269-299 ng) (Selman et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2012


_____________________________________________________________________________

CRISP-3 (cysteine-rich secretory protein-3, SGP28, specific granule protein 28, Aeg2, acidic epididymal glycoprotein 2, SCP 2, Sperm-coating glycoprotein 2)

¥ plasma levels: 6.3 microg/mL; in saliva: 21.8 microg/mL; in seminal plasma: 11.2 microg/mL; in sweat: 0.15 microg/mL (Udby et al, 2002)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

CXCL1 (SCYB1, CINC-1, Cytokine induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1, fsp, fibroblast secretory protein, GRO1, GRO-alpha, KC, MGSA, melanoma growth stimulatory activity, MGSA-alpha, melanoma growth stimulatory activity-alpha, NAP-3, neutrophil-activating protein-3, N51)

¥ plasma levels in hyperhomocysteinemic subjects: 116 (66-574) pg/mL; in normal controls: 89 (33-155) pg/mL (Holven et al, 2002)
¥ mean mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: 23,960 ± 5,000 pg/mL; mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from age-matched female healthy volunteers: 44,900 ± 7,410 pg/mL (Pacheco-Rodriguez et al, 2009)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: February 2008


_____________________________________________________________________________

CXCL5 (ENA-78, Epithelial neutrophil-activating protein 78; epithelial cell-derived neutrophil attractant-78, LIX, LPS induced CXC chemokine, AMCF-2, Alveolar macrophage chemotactic factor-2, SCYB5)

¥ plasma levels in hyperhomocysteinemic subjects: 1242 (715-5282) pg/mL; in normal controls: 995 (379-1848) pg/mL (Holven et al, 2002)
¥ median value in plasma from non-malignant patients: 1100.6 pg/mL (range: 0 - 7203.2 pg/mL); in patients with gastric carcinoma: 1702.8 pg/mL (range: 0 - 11588.5 pg/mL) (Rajkumar et al, 2010)
¥ in serum from pregnant women (frozen samples): median: 387.2 pg/mL (interquartile range: 210.7-618.2 pg/mL); in term fresh samples: median: 30.3 pg/mL (interquartile range: 13.2-153.7 pg/mL); in early fresh samples: median: 158.4 pg/mL (interquartile range: 119.3-228.2 pg/mL) (Whitcomb et al, 2007)
¥ mean mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: 4,470 ± 1,350 pg/mL; mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from age-matched female healthy volunteers: 10,180 ± 2,440 pg/mL (Pacheco-Rodriguez et al, 2009)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 773.43 ± 523.86 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 999.56 ± 511.93 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 1295.31 ± 1639 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

CXCL6 (GCP-2, granulocyte chemotactic peptide-2, CKA-3, chemokine alpha 3, SCYB6)

¥ levels present in amniotic fluid: present in all term samples, undetectable in mid-trimester specimens. 228.9 pg/mL (0.0 - 8344.8 in patients with pre-term labor and intra-amniotic infection/inflammation; 55.7 pg/mL (0 - 454.4)in patients with pre-term labor without intra-amniotic infection/inflammation; 41.5 pg/mL (0 - 279.0) in patients with pre-term labor and term delivery (Mittal et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 145.34 ± 65.17 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 258.7 ± 178.96 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 105.92 ± 46.8 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

CXCL9 (CXC chemokine ligand 9, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9, mig, monokine induced by gamma-Interferon, Humig, Mumig, CRG-10, cytokine responsive gene-10, M119, SCYB9)

¥ mean plasma levels [pg/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 8.4 (3.0); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 34 (29); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 127 (54); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 22 (11); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 102 (50); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 1.8 (0.9); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 41 (24); with diabetes: 6.3 (10) (de Jager et al, 2007)
¥ serum median levels in chronically-infected HCV patients treated with IFN-alpha plus ribavirin showing early virological response: 434.4 pg/mL [interquartile range: 102.5-1711 pg/mL]; in patients without early virological response: 637.2 pg/mL [interquartile range: 12.5-1208.4 pg/mL]; serum median levels in chronically-infected HCV patients treated with IFN-alpha plus ribavirin showing sustained virological response: 626.5 pg/mL [interquartile range: 102.5-1273.6 pg/mL]; in patients without sustained virological response: 583.7 pg/mL [interquartile range: 158.7-884 pg/mL] (Moura et al, 2011)
¥ median value in plasma from non-malignant patients: 6069.2 pg/mL (range: 0 - 18739.7 pg/mL); in patients with gastric carcinoma: 7561.8 pg/mL (range: 505.6 - 86999 pg/mL) (Rajkumar et al, 2010)
¥ median serum concentration (upper/lower quartile) in patients below 10 years old with atopic dermatitis: 56.7 pg/mL (29.8 pg/mL / 75.1 pg/mL); in normal controls for this group: 87.3 pg/mL (55.4 pg/mL / 132.0 pg/mL); median serum concentration (upper/lower quartile) in patients over 10 years old with atopic dermatitis: 34.1 pg/mL (23.9 pg/mL / 62.9pg/mL); in normal controls for this group: 17.9 pg/mL (12.5 pg/mL / 26.7 pg/mL) (Narbutt et al, 2009)
¥ mean mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: 3,710 ± 840 pg/mL; mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from age-matched female healthy volunteers: 3,790 ± 650 pg/mL (Pacheco-Rodriguez et al, 2009)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 1908.02 ± 1560.05 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 3392.35 ± 2887.85 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 4064.36 ± 2828.03 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

CXCL10 (IP-10, INP-10, inflammatory protein 10, Interferon-inducible protein-10, IFN-inducible protein 10, immune protein-10; 10 kDa interferon-inducible protein, gamma-IP-10, CRG-2, cytokine responsive gene-2, C7, Ifi10, interferon-inducible-10, mob-1, SCYB10)

¥ median serum concentration in pregnant patients with pyelonephritis: 318.5 pg/mL, range 78.8-2459.2; in normal pregnant woman: 116.1 pg/mL, range 40.7-1314.3; in pregnant patients with acute pyelonephritis and with bacteremia: 362.6 pg/mL, range 100.2-2459.2; in pregnant patients with acute pyelonephritis without bacteremia: 298.9 pg/mL, range 108.5-1148.7 (Gotsch et al, 2007)
¥ plasma baseline levels in patients with Crohn's disease: 240.1 (189.4-325.1) pg/mL; in patients after 13 weeks of daily treatment with 80 mg atorvastatin: 158.0 (133.3-232.5) pg/mL (Grip and Janciauskiene, 2009)
¥
median value in plasma from non-malignant patients: 670.2 pg/mL (range: 0 - 3328.9 pg/mL); in patients with gastric carcinoma: 931.1 pg/mL (range: 0 - 5158.9 pg/mL) (Rajkumar et al, 2010)
¥ median serum concentration (upper/lower quartile) in patients below 10 years old with atopic dermatitis: 84.8 pg/mL (60.8 pg/mL / 94.3 pg/mL); in normal controls for this group: 98.0 pg/mL (76.4 pg/mL / 135.2 pg/mL); median serum concentration (upper/lower quartile) in patients over 10 years old with atopic dermatitis: 93.6 pg/mL (67.4 pg/mL / 114.9 pg/mL); in normal controls for this group: 75.8 pg/mL (63.2 pg/mL / 112.5 pg/mL) (Narbutt et al, 2009)
¥ mean plasma levels [pg/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 98 (36); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 171 (65); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 828 (216); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 289 (119); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 442 (130); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 70 (29); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 137 (45); with diabetes: 242 (105) (de Jager et al, 2007)
¥ serum median levels in chronically-infected HCV patients treated with IFN-alpha plus ribavirin showing early virological response: 512.9 pg/mL [interquartile range: 225.5-630.3 pg/mL]; in patients without early virological response: 179.1 pg/mL [interquartile range: 107.2-268.9 pg/mL]; serum median levels in chronically-infected HCV patients treated with IFN-alpha plus ribavirin showing sustained virological response: 289.9 pg/mL [interquartile range: 157.7-512.9 pg/mL]; in patients without sustained virological response: 142.7 pg/mL [interquartile range: 86.7-206.6 pg/mL] (Moura et al, 2011)
¥ serum levels in children with type 1 diabetes: 99 (8-498) pg/mL in serum from controls: 120 (17-538) pg/mL; in siblings of the children with type 1 diabetes: 117 (7-448) pg/mL; serum levels in patients with proven enterovirus infection: 172 (0-585) pg/mL; serum levels in patients with other proven virus infections: 418 (34-611) pg/mL (Berg et al, 2010)
¥ mean mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: 1,900 ± 580 pg/mL; mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from age-matched female healthy volunteers: 1,260 ± 270 pg/mL (Pacheco-Rodriguez et al, 2009)
¥ plasma levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: 2,880 ± 5,430 [10,700 ± 15,600] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 3,610 ± 5,490 [2,670 ± 3,550] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 828.19 ± 390.78 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 1490.8 ± 577.68 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 2642.36 ± 3052.23 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

CXCL11 ((CXC chemokine ligand 11, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11, H174, beta-R1, I-TAC, Interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant, IP-9, interferon-gamma-inducible protein-9, SCYB11, SCYB9B)

¥ median serum concentration (upper/lower quartile) in patients below 10 years old with atopic dermatitis: 52.9 pg/mL (36.1 pg/mL / 64.6 pg/mL); in normal controls for this group: 66.9 pg/mL (40.8 pg/mL / 135.2 pg/mL); median serum concentration (upper/lower quartile) in patients over 10 years old with atopic dermatitis: 57.4 pg/mL (45.5 pg/mL / 97.6 pg/mL); in normal controls for this group: 43.2 pg/mL (36.1 pg/mL / 57.4 pg/mL) (Narbutt et al, 2009)
¥ mean mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: 640 ± 160 pg/mL; mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from age-matched female healthy volunteers: 270 ± 70 pg/mL (Pacheco-Rodriguez et al, 2009)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 588.18 ± 359.73 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 956.92 ± 449.84 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 746.46 ± 468.38 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

CXCL12 (IRH, intercrine reduced in hepatomas, SDF-1-alpha, SDF-1-beta, SDF, Stromal cell-derived factor, Stromal cell-derived factor-1-alpha, Stromal cell-derived factor-1-beta, PBSF, pre-B-cell growth stimulating factor, TLSF, Thymic lymphoma cell stimulating factor, Thymic lymphoma cell stimulating factor-alpha, Thymic lymphoma cell stimulating factor-beta, TLSF-alpha, TLSF-beta, TPAR-1, TPA repressed gene-1, SCYB12)

¥ mean levels in uninfected control subjects: 25.6 ± 34.7 ng/mL; levels in HIV-1 seronegative individuals: 0.28 to 106.5 ng/mL; mean, 25.6 ng/mL; (mean intrasubject variation 17 %). Mean serum levels in HIV-1infected patients with CD4(+) cell count of <50: 10.7 ± 33.7 ng/mL; with CD4(+) cell count of 50-200: 12.9 ± 19.0 ng/mL; with CD4(+) cell count of 200-500: 19.3 ± 36.8 ng/mL; with CD4(+) cell count of >500: 18.5 ± 25.2 ng/mL (Derdeyn et al, 1999)
¥ median serum concentration (upper/lower quartile) in patients below 10 years old with atopic dermatitis: 2444.9 pg/mL (2291.2 pg/mL / 2711 pg/mL); in normal controls for this group: 2135.8 pg/mL (1821.4 pg/mL / 2364.7 pg/mL); median serum concentration (upper/lower quartile) in patients over 10 years old with atopic dermatitis: 2553.5 (2393.9/2618.2); in normal controls for this group: 2361.1 (2239.5/2430.3) (Narbutt et al, 2009)
¥ mean mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: 13,910 ± 5,110 pg/mL; mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from age-matched female healthy volunteers: 2,170 ± 660 pg/mL (Pacheco-Rodriguez et al, 2009)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 3058.3 ± 2505.04 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 3455.73 ± 919.35 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 2884.58 ± 1375.55 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

CXCL13 (CXC chemokine ligand 13, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13, BLC, B-lymphocyte chemoattractant, BCA-1, B-cell attracting chemokine 1, blr-1L, blr-1 ligand, Angie-2, SCYB13)

¥ serum levels in children. Median (interquartile range (IQR) serum CXCL13 concentrations (pg/mL) were increasingly higher across the following groups: healthy controls (71.6 pg/mL (66.6-81.8), Systemic lupus erythematosus patients with inactive disease (140.8 pg/mL(99.7-198.8), p = 0.0005 versus controls) and active disease (293.0 pg/mL(105.5-489.8), p = 0.0001 versus controls) (inactive versus active; p < 0.0001). Median CXCL13 concentrations were higher in patients with renal involvement (270.6 pg/mL(150.4-430.7) compared with those without renal involvement (120.6 pg/mL (70.5-208.9). CXCL13 concentrations were higher in children with class III, IV and V nephritis compared with those with class I and II nephritis (333.9 pg/mL(169.4-491.5) pg/mLversus (180.4 (107.9-209.7) (Ezzat et al, 2011)
¥ levels in cereprospinal fluid in patients with untreated acute Lyme neuroborreliosis: mean=15,149 pg/mL; in patients without Lyme neuroborreliosis: mean=247 pg/mL) (Schmidt et al, 2011)
¥ serum levels (median (interquartile range) in healthy controls: 31.6 (26.8-41.3) pg/mL; in SLE patients with inactive disease: 68.2 (27.8-133.0) pg/mL; in patients with active disease: 196.0 (75.9-416.8) pg/mL; in patients with renal involvement: 175.5 (105.3-422.6) pg/mL; in patients without renal involvement [82.1 (42.9-219.8) pg/mL (Schiffer et al, 2009)
¥
serum levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: median 83pg/mL (interquartile range 38-366)]; in patients without systemic lupus erythematosus but with sepsis: 359pg/mL: (151-459)]; in healthy controls: 32pg/mL(27-41) (Schiffer et al, 2011)
¥ serum levels in controls: mean: 29.7; SD 39.6; median 14.4 (min: 6.5, max: 151.3); levels are significantly higher in patients with in multiple sclerosis patients before and after 5-day treatment with methylprednisolone (Michałowska-Wender et al, 2008)
¥ serum levels in healthy donors: 36 pg/mL (mean); in breast cancer patients without evidence of disease after surgical resection: 40 pg/mL (mean); in patients with metastatic breast cancer 80 pg/mL (mean) (Panse et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: mean 100.4 pg/mL [95% confidence interval 63.9-157.9]; in control group: mean 43.3 pg/mL [95% confidence interval 24.9-75.4]; in patients with quiescent rheumatoid arthritis: mean 48.8 pg/mL [95% confidence interval 30.6-75.5] (Rioja et al, 2008)
¥ serum levels in normal controls: 48.2 ± 11.0 pg/mL (mean ± SD); in HCV-infected patients without mixed cryoglobulinemia: 113.9 ± 40.2 pg/mL (mean ± SD); in HCV-infected patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia: 273.6 ± 98 pg/mL (mean ± SD) (Sansonno et al, 2008)
¥ median (range) pre-treatment serum level in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis: 40 (3-171) pg/mL (Festa et al, 2009)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 28.49 ± 10.53 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 41.91 ± 20.51 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 38.74 ± 30.88 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

CXCL16 (SR-PSOX, scavenger receptor that binds phosphatidylserine and oxidized lipoprotein, SCYB16)

¥ median plasma levels in patients with stable angina pectoris: 2111 pg/mL); in control subjects: 2678 pg/mL; in patients with unstable angina pectoris/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction: 2192 pg/mL; in patients 3 months after myocardial infarction: 2529 pg/mL (Sheikine et al, 2006)
¥ mean mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: 230 ± 44 ng/mL; mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from age-matched female healthy volunteers: 123 ± 16 ng/mL (Pacheco-Rodriguez et al, 2009)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

Cystatin A (CSTA, Keratolinin, Stefin A, STFA, STF1, ACPI, acid cysteine proteinase inhibitor)

¥ serum levels in normal controls: 3.4 ± 0.21 ng/mL; in melanoma patients with no metastatic disease: 2.5 ng/mL (range 1.1-8.5); in melanoma patients with metastatic disease: 2.4 ng/mL (range: 1.1-4.8) (Kos et al, 1997)
¥ serum median levels in controls: 4.3 ng/mL; in patients with colorectal cancer: 3.2 ng/mL (Kos et al, 2000)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: July 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

Cystatin C (CST3, Cystatin-3, Gamma-TRACE, post-gamma globulin)

¥ serum levels in normal controls: 310 ± 21.2 ng/mL; in melanoma patients with no metastatic disease: 360 ng/mL (range: 290-480); in melanoma patients with metastatic disease: 470 ng/mL (range: 210-750) (Kos et al, 1997)
¥ serum median levels in controls: 679 ng/ml: in patients with colorectal cancer: 425 ng/mL (Kos et al, 2000)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: July 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

D-dopachrome tautomerase
(DDT, DDCT, Phenylpyruvate tautomerase, D-dopachrome carboxy-lyase, D-dopachrome decarboxylase, Phenylpyruvate tautomerase II, EC4.1.1.84)

¥ serum levels in control group: 5.9 ± 3.9 ng/mL; in patients with ovarian cancer: 15.2 ± 13.8 ng/mL (Merk et al, 2011)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: July 2012


_____________________________________________________________________________

dickkopf-1 (dkk-1, dickkopf-related protein 1, Sk)

¥ serum levels in controls: 31 ± 11 ng/mL; in patients with multiple myeloma at diagnosis: 67 ± 54 ng/mL; in patients with stage 2 and 3 myeloma: 79 ± 63 ng/mL; in patients with stage 1 myeloma: 40 ± 13 ng/mL; in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance 38 ± 13 ng/mL (Politou et al, 2006)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: July 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

ECP (eosinophil cationic protein, ribonuclease A family 3, RNASE3, RNS3, ribonuclease 3, EAR, eosinophil-associated ribonuclease, EAR-1, eosinophil-associated ribonuclease-1)

¥ mean serum levels in patients with bullous pemphigoid: 17 ± 21 ng/mL; in healthy donors: 5 ± 7 ng/mL (Frezzolini et al, 2004)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

EM66 (fragment of Secretogranin-2, SCG2, Chromogranin C)

¥ plasma levels in healthy volunteers: 2.6 (1.9-3.7) ng/mL; in patients with pheochromocytoma: 26.9 (7.3-44) ng/mL (Guillemot J et al, 2006)
¥ urinary levels in healthy volunteers: 2.9 (1.9-4.6) ng/mL; in patients with pheochromocytoma: 3.2 (2.2-3.9) ng/mL (Guillemot J et al, 2006)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: January 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

endostatin (collagen type 18, endostatin 18, endostatin XVIII, HIAF-1, EGF (epidermal growth factor, EGF-URO, HMGF, human milk growth factor, PGF, prostatic growth factor, beta-Urogastrone, URO, URG, Urogastrone)

¥ in patients with esophagitis (nondrinkers with typical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux (N = 12), chronic alcoholics (N = 12), controls (chronic alcoholics without esophagitis (N = 16), healthy nondrinkers (N = 12) remain constant in serum (328 ± 21 pg/mL) and saliva (305 ± 48 pg/mL), regardless of alcohol intake and presence/absence of esophagitis (Benamouzig et al, 1996)
¥ mediam EGF level in women with endometrial carcinoma: 0.97 ± 0.41 ng/mL; 0.78 ± 0.19 ng/mL in control group (women with proliferative endometrium) (Tomaszewski et al, 1996).
¥ saliva levels in control infants: 590 ± 80 pg/mL; saliva levels in infants with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis: 239 ± 41 pg/mL. Serum levels in control infants: 35 ± 8 pg/mL; serum levels in infants with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis: 5.6 ± 1.9 pg/mL (Shin et al, 2000)
¥ Urinary levels, corrected for urine creatinine concentrations in normal subjects: 13.74 ± 1.18 ng/mg creatinine; in patients with acute renal failure in the acute phase: 0.98 ± 0.20 v 13.74 ± 1.18 ng/mg creatinine. Serum levels in normal control subjects: 0.30 ± 0.03 ng/mL; in patients with acute renal failure: 0.10 ± 0.01 (Taira et al, 1993)
¥ level in first voided urine in appropriate-for-date neonates: 33.9 ± 23.0 ng/mg creatinine. Level in first voided urine in neonates with intrauterine growth retardation: 23.5 ± 7.7 ng/mg creatinine. Level in first voided urine in heavy-for-date neonates: 19.8 ± 5.2 ng/mg creatinine. Urinary level in women with appropriate-for-date fetuses: 45.9 ± 31.2 ng/mg creatinine. Urinary level in women with diabetes: 39.9 ± 26.8 ng/mg creatinine. Urinary level in women with multiple fetuses: 44.6 ± 30.6 ng/mg creatinine. Urinary level in women with intrauterine growth retardation fetuses: 13.8 ± 7.4 ng/mg creatinine. Levels in platelet-poor plasma in cases of intrauterine growth retardation at delivery: mother: 2.62 ± 0.38 ng/mL, fetus: 2.16 ± 0.07 ng/mL. Levels in platelet-poor plasma in cases of appropriate-for-date pregnancies: mother: 3.34 ± 0.64 ng/mL, fetus: 3.24 ± 0.93 ng/mL (Shigeta et al, 1992)
¥ Levels in amniotic fluid near term: 87 ± 71 pM. Levels in amniotic fluid in mid-gestation: 35 ± 8 pM. Urinary levels near mid-gestation: 53.9 ± 30.8 micrograms/g creatinine. Urinary levels near term: 33.4 ± 14.1 micrograms/g creatinine (Hofmann and Abramowicz, 1990)
¥ levels in urine: 11-100 ng/mL; in serum: 1.0-1.8 ng/mL; in plasma: 0.2-0.8 ng/mL; in sperm: 17-47 ng/mL); in saliva: 0.9-3.0 ng/mL; in tears: 9.5-27 ng/mL (Hayashi and Sakamoto, 1988)
¥ Urinary levels in healthy subjects: 46.2 ± 16.6 micrograms/g creatinine; levels in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: 40.9 ± 29.3 micrograms/g creatinine (Yeh et al, 1987)
¥ Serum concentration in normal males: 780 pg/mL; in females: 604 pg/mL. Urinary concentration for males: 51.3 ng/mg creatinine; for females: 68.3 ng/mg creatinine (Joh et al, 1986).


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

endocan (ESM-1, endothelial cell-specific molecule 1)

¥ circulating levels in healthy donors: 0.77 ± 0.44 ng/mL; in patients with sepsis: 2.71 ± 4.88 ng/mL; in patients systemic inflammatory response syndrome: 0.68 ± 1.03 ng/mL; in patients with septic shock: 6.11 ± 12.99 ng/mL; in patients with severe sepsis: 1.97 ± 7.8 ng/mL; in patients with sepsis: 1.95 ± 1.63 ng/mL; in nonsurvivors: 6.98 ± 13.8; in patients surviving 10 days: 2.45 ± 4.09 (Scherpereel et al, 2006)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: November 2008


_____________________________________________________________________________

endostatin (collagen type 18, endostatin 18, endostatin XVIII, HIAF-1, human inhibitor angiogenesis factor-1)

¥ serum levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing early reperfusion therapy (Seko et al, 2004). Mean serum levels 49.2 ± 11.7 ng/mL, but not detectable in controls. After reperfusion: endostatin, 19.6 ± 7.0 ng/mL.
¥ serum levels in patients with metastatic liver cancer is 18.8 ± 1.5 ng/mL, 23.9 ± 4.9 ng/mL in patients with liver cancer without metastases, and 17.1 ± 1.5 ng/mL in the control group (Miyashita et al, 2003)
¥ median serum levels were 24.6 ng/mL (range, 15.1-54.0 ng/mL) in patients with clear cell renal carcinoma, versus 14.1 ng/mL (range, 1.0-19.3 ng/mL) in healthy controls (Feldman et al, 2000)
¥ serum levels in nonpregnant women: 17.2 ng/mL; in healthy pregnant women: 17.2 ng/mL; severely (30.5 ng/mL) and mildly (26.05 ng/mL) preeclamptic patients (Hirtenlehner et al, 2003)
¥ concentration in human serum: 7.7 ng/mL; concentration in wound fluids: 12.8 - 65.5 ng/mL (Smith and Hoffman, 2005)
¥
endostatin serum levels in normal controls (children): 123.6 ± 13.5 ng/mL; in children with lymphoma: 43.9 ± 5.8 ng/mL (Okur et al, 2010)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

endothelin-1 (ET-1(1-21), ET-1)

¥ plasma level in healthy subjects: 0.8 ± 0.4 pg/mL; in ulcerative colitis patients; 3.5 ± 1.5 pg/mL (Nakamura et al, 2004).
¥ serum levels in patients with burns increased to 6.1 ± 2.3 fmol on admission, 5.7 ± 2.1 at 12 hours, 6.9 ± 2.7 at 24 hours, and 6.4 ± 2.7 at 48 hours (vs 0.5 in healthy controls) (McMillen et al, 1996)
¥ serum levels in patients with virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma: 13.24 ± 0.82 pg/mL; in patients with compensated cirrhosis: 9.47 ± 0.50 pg/mL; in patients with decompensated cirrhosis: 9.57 ± 0.32 pg/mL; in normal controls: 8.84 ± 0.61 pg/mL (Notas et al, 2001)
¥ plasma levels in patients with cirrhosis: 2.04 ± 0.25 pg/mL; in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: 2.23 ± 0.17 pg/mL; in normal controls: 1.17 ± 0.17 pg/mL; in patients with chronic hepatitis: 1.09 ± 0.19 pg/mL (Matsumoto et al, 1994)
¥ plasma levels in patients with acute hepatitis: 5.07 ± 2.54 pg/mL; in patients with liver cirrhosis: 3.71 ± 1.17 pg/mL; in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: 3.08 ± 0.93 pg/mL; in patients with chronic hepatitis: 2.05 ± 0.61 pg/mL; in healthy controls: 2.18 ± 0.37 pg/mL (Uchida and Watanabe, 1993)
¥ plasma levels of endothelin-like immunoreactivities in patients with hepatocarcinoma: 30.3 ± 8.5 pg/mL; in patients with liver cirrhosis:: 22.1 ± 4.7 pg/mL; in normal controls: 9.4 ± 1.6 pg/mL (Nakamuta et al, 1993)
¥ plasma levels in patients with hepatocarcinoma: 1.7 ± 0.9 pmol/L in normal controls: 1.0 ± 0.3 pmol/L (Ishibashi et al, 1993)
¥ plasma levels of Big ET-1 in patients with hepatocarcinoma: 6.1 ± 4.8 pmol/L; in normal controls: 2.0 ± 0.8 pmol/L (Ishibashi et al, 1993)
¥ levels in plasma: 93.7 ± 28.6 ng/L; levels in human pericardial fluid: 128.8 ± 44.0 ng/L (Liu et al, 2008)
¥ mean(s.d.) plasma levels in controls: 2.75 (1.37) pg/mL; in colorectal cancer patients with colorectal liver metastases: 4.53(1.61) pg/mL; in colorectal cancer patients without metastases: 3.92(1.32) pg/ml (Shankar et al, 1998)
¥ plasma concentrations in hypertensive versus normotensive controls: 6.1 ± 1.5 vs. 2.4 ± 0.3 pg/mL (Parissis et al, 2002)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: October 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

eosinophil cationic protein (ECP, ribonuclease A family 3, RNASE3, RNS3, ribonuclease 3, EAR, eosinophil-associated ribonuclease, EAR-1, eosinophil-associated ribonuclease-1, ECP-1, eosinophil cationic protein-1, ECP-2, eosinophil cationic protein-2)

¥ The upper "normal" limit for ECP in cerebrospinal fluid has been estimated to be 1.7 microgram/L in normal patients. ECP levels are elevated in 38 % of patients with acute cerebrovascular disease, 67 % of patients with acute infections of the CNS, 67 % of patients with tumors, 25 % of patients with multiple sclerosis (Hallgren et al, 1983)
¥ peripheral blood concentrations in healthy controls: 5.8 ± 2.3 micrograms/L; in children with bronchial asthma: 23.7 ± 21.4 micrograms/L; in children with atopic dermatitis: 21.2 ± 18.7 micrograms/L (Sugai et al, 1992)
¥ mean serum concentrations in children with Mycoplasma pneumonia: 18.7 ± 12.6 micrograms/mL; with asthma: 23.7 ± 12.2 micrograms/mL; in normal controls: 6.5 ± 1.4 micrograms/mL (Yamashita et al, 1994)
¥ nasal fluid mean concentrations in normal controls: 32.6 ± 8.1 ng/mL; 106 ± 39.7 in non-rhinitic atopics, 87.6 ± 20.8 ng/mL in patients with chronic non-allergic sinusitis, 101.3 ± 40.4 ng/mL in patients with a history of pollinosis, 150.5 ± 35.1 ng/mL in patients with acute pollinosis, 84.7 ± 24.7 ng/mL in individuals with perennial allergic rhinitis, 112.9 ± 25.6 ng/mL in patients with both perennial and seasonal allergy (Rasp et al, 1994)
¥ tear fluid mean levels in controls: 7.5 ± 0.4 microgram/L; in patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis: 988.3 ± 128 micrograms/L before therapy and 566.3 ± 121 micrograms/L after therapy (Leonardi et al, 1995)
¥ serum levels in healthy controls: 7.3 ± 2.1 micrograms/L; in patients with Chronic fatigue syndrome: 18.0 ± 11.3 micrograms/L (Conti et al, 1996)
¥ norm range in nasal secretions: 5-46 ng/mL in samples obtained by absorbent cotton wool sampler method; 7-41 ng/mL in samples obtained by rubber-foam sampler method; 4-51 ng/mL in samples obtained by nasal spray washing; 3-31 ng/mL in samples obtained by nasal lavage (Klimek and Rasp, 1999)
¥ 95th and 97.5 th percentiles for serum values in normal, nonatopic, nonasthmatic children (aged 1-15 years): 19 and 20 microg/L, respectively (Fitch et al, 1999)
¥ median urinary level in healthy controls: 0.35 ng/mL; in patients infected with Schistosoma haematobium: 136 ng/mL; in infected patients with ultrasonographically detectable urinary tract pathology: 183 ng/mL; in infected patients without ultrasonographically detectable urinary tract pathology: 67 ng/mL (Leutscher et al, 2000)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: January 2007


_____________________________________________________________________________

erythropoietin (Epo, Ep, ECSA, erythroid colony stimulating activity, ESF, erythropoiesis stimulating factor)

¥ serum levels in normal controls: 20.0 ± 3.4 mU/mL; in patients with essential hypertension: 66.7 ± 11.4 mU/mL (Chudek et al, 1997)
¥ serum levels in normal subjects: 10.5 ± 4.1 mU/mL; in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: 55.6 ± 218.0 mU/mL; in patients with liver cirrhosis: 18.4 ± 19.4 mU/mL (Sawabe et al, 1993)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

FAS (CD95, APO-1, apoptosis antigen-1, APT1, TNFRSF6, TNF receptor superfamily member 6, FASTM, FASL receptor)

¥ serum levels of soluble FAS determined in patients with chronic heart failure and ongoing myocardial damage (New York Heart Association (NYHA) III + IV and NYHA II) (Setsuta et al, 2004). Values are III + IV: 3.36 ± 1.37 versus II: 2.58 ± 0.84 ng/mL, p=0.03).


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

fetuin (Fetuin-A, pp63, phosphorylated N-glycoprotein, 59 kDa bone sialoprotein, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, AHSG, alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein, Countertrypin, Haemonectin)

¥ mean serum levels: 0.46 ± 0.09 g/L (Roos et al, 2008)
¥ serum levels in rheumatoid arthritis patients: 249.8 ± 84.1 microg/mL; serum levels in healthy patients: 425.0 ± 93.0 microg/mL (Sato et al, 2007)
¥ mean serum levels in healthy patients with -799TT single nucleotide polymorphism: 222.1 ± 11.0 microg/mL; mean serum levels in healthy patients with -799AT single nucleotide polymorphism: 291.8 ± 8.1 microg/mL; mean serum levels in healthy patients with -799AA single nucleotide polymorphism: 349.0 ± 13.0 microg/mL (Inoue et al, 2008)
¥ serum levels in hemodialysis patients (T256S polymorphism): 0.35 ± 0.11 g/L); serum levels in healthy controls (T256S polymorphism): 0.62 ± 0.31 g/L (Cozzolino et al, 2007)
¥ serum levels in patients with evidence of cardiovascular calcifications in more than 5 sites: 0.41 ± 0.22 g/L; in patients with cardiovascular calcification score = 0: 0.51 ± 0.17 g/L; serum levels lower than 0.290 g/L are associated with higher risk of a worse cardiovascular calcification score, independently from traditional risk factors (Cozzolino et al, 2006)
¥ serum levels in patients with calcific aortic stenosis: 1.41 ± 0.33 mg/dL; serum levels in healthy controls: 1.57 ± 0,27 mg/dL; serum levels in individuals with normal glomerular filtration rate: 1.36 ± 0.24 mg/dL; serum levels in individuals with highl glomerular filtration rate (> or=60 mL/min): 1.63 ± 0.27 mg/dL (Kaden et al, 2007)
¥ serum levels in severe preeclamptic patients with HELLP syndrome: 588 microg/mL (492-660; 25-75 percentile); 654 microg/mL (576-768; 25-75 percentile) severe preeclamptic patients without HELLP syndrome; 738 microg/mL (666-804; 25-75 percentile) in normal controls (Molvarec et al, 2007)
¥ mean serum concentration in patients with evidence of atherosclerotic plaques at the common carotid or femoral artery: 57.68 ± 13.6 ng/mL; mean serum concentration in control subjects: 41.6 ± 7.6 ng/mL (Fiore et al, 2007)
¥ serum levels in normal children: 101.4 ± 11 ng/mL; in children with with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome: 78.1 ± 24.5 ng/mL; in children with chronic renal failure 106.7 ± 13.7 ng/mL (Ziolkowska et al, 2006)
¥ serum levels in patients with hyperparathyroidism: 0.219 ± 0.1 ng/mL;
in patients with mixed osteodystrophy: 0.27 ± 0.1 ng/mL; in patients with low-turnover osteodystrophy: 0.197 ± 0.1 ng/mL (Coen et al, 2006)
¥ mean serum concentration in dialysis patients: 0.63 ± 0.16 g/L; in normal controls: 0.63 ± 0.11 g/L (Hermans et al, 2006)
¥ serum levels in healthy subjects (AHSG1 homozygotes): 581 ± 38 mg/L; in heterozygotes: 542 ± 31 mg/L; in AHSG2 homozygotes: 494 ± 23 mg/L (Osawa et al, 2005)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: February 2008


_____________________________________________________________________________

FGF-19 (Fibroblast growth factor-19)

¥ median serum concentrations in normal subjects: 242.4 ng/L; in patients with metabolic syndrome: 158.6 ng/L (Stejskal et al, 2008)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: August 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

FGF-21 (Fibroblast growth factor-21)

¥ serum concentrations in normal subjects: 1.53 ± 0.6 microg/mL; fasting levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: 1.82 ± 0.65 microg/mL (Chen et al, 2008)
¥ serum concentrations in normal glucose tolerance subjects: 111.8 pg/mL [58.0, 198.9]; in patients with isolated-impaired glucose tolerance: 164.6 pg/mL [89.7, 261.0] (Li et al, 2009)
¥ plasma levels in lean normal-glucose-tolerant subjects: 3.9 ± 0.3 ng/mL; plasma levels in obese normal-glucose-tolerant subjects: 4.9 ± 0.2 ng/mL; plasma levels in impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance (IFG/IGT): 5.2 ± 0.2 ng/mL; plasma levels in Type 2 Diabetes subjects: 5.3 ± 0.2 ng/mL (Chavez et al, 2009)
¥ median serum levels in chronic hemodialysis patients: 3,710.6 ng/L; in subjects with a glomerular filtration rate > 50 mL/min: 201.9 ng/L (Stein et al, 2009)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: August 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

FGF-23 (Fibroblast growth factor-23)

¥ serum levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism on postoperative day 6 after parathyroidectomy compared with healthy controls (Yamashita et al, 2004): 35.6 ± 17.8 ng/l versus 28.9 ± 11.2 ng/l (mean ± sd)
¥ serum concentrations 30.7 ± 8.7 pg/mL during phosphorus supplementation; 19.6 ± 7.0 pg/mL during phosphorus restriction (Antoniucci et al, 2006)
¥ mean plasma levels: 20.4 ± 9.1 pg/mL (Roos et al, 2008)
¥ serum levels in healthy adults: 8.2 to 54.3 ng/L; in a patient with tumor-induced osteomalacia: > 200 ng/L (Yamazaki et al, 2002)
¥ serum levels in haemodialysis patients: 1525 ± 373 pg/mL; in healthy controls: 37 ± 9 pg/mL (Ibrahim and Rashed, 2009)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: December 2008


_____________________________________________________________________________

Ficolin-1 (FCN1, FCNM, Ficolin-A, Ficolin-alpha, M-ficolin, collagen/fibrinogen domain-containing protein 1)

¥ median concentration in 94 children with cancer: 1.6 μg/mL (interquartile range, 0.57-2.7; range, 0.055-25.8); in age-matched controls: median, 1.7 μg/mL; p=0.92) (Schlapbach et al, 2011)
¥ median concentration in human plasma from healthy donors: 60.5 ng/mL (ranging from 45.7 to 100.4 ng/mL) (HonorŽ C et al, 2008)

Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: April 2012


_____________________________________________________________________________

gas-6 (Growth arrest-specific gene-6, Growth-potentiating factor, GPF, AXLLG, axl receptor tyrosine kinase ligand, AXSF, axl stimulatory factor)

¥ mean plasma concentrations in men: 52.0 microg/L; mean plasma concentrations in women not receiving oral contraceptives: 63.8 microg/L; mean plasma concentrations in women taking oral contraceptives for 3 months: 51.9 microg/L (Clauser et al, 2007)

Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: January 2008


_____________________________________________________________________________

Gastrin (gastrin-17, Gastrin component 3, little Gastrin, Cholecystokinin B)

¥ plasma levels in healthy controls: 39.24 ± 5.59 pg/mL. levels in dyspeptic patients without H pylori infection: 68.59 ± 17.97 pg/mL; levels in H pylori-infected patients with duodenal ulcers: 106.78 ± 22.72 pg/mL; levels in infected patients with gastritis: 74.95 ± 15.63 pg/mL (Sokic-Milutinovic et al, 2005)
¥ plasma levels in healthy controls: 33-95 pg/mL (mean: 59.7 pg/mL) (Piris and Whitehead, 1975)
¥ plasma levels in rats: 75 ± 18 pg/mL. Elevated levels after injection of endothelin-1 (Piris and Whitehead, 1975)
¥ postprandial serum/plasma levels in healthy children: 56.2 ± 29.6 pg/mL; in children with cystic fibrosis: 57.0 ± 34.2 pg/mL; in children with Crohn's disease: 43.6 ± 26.6 pg/mL (Teufel et al, 1986)
¥ Mean Gastrin-17 levels in cord blood of healthy full-term newborn infants are not different from those of adult controls (29.28 ± 4.16 versus 31.00 ± 2.62 pg/mL) and increase significantly either at 12 h (48.06 ± 7.32 pg/mL) or on the 4th day of life (80.56 ± 9.99 pg/mL) (Gemelli et al, 1987).
¥ Mean serum Gastrin-34 levels in cord blood of healthy full-term newborn infants are significantly higher than in adult controls (163.22 ± 11.19 versus 126.68 ± 5.57 pg/mL) and increases at 12 h of life (225.22 ± 25.95 pg/mL). No increase is found on the 4th day of life (204.87 ± 18.08 pg/mL) (Gemelli et al, 1987).
¥ concentration in umbilical cord blood: 106 ± 40 pmol/L (Marchini et al, 1990)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: August 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

G-CSF (Granulocyte colony stimulating factor, CSF-3, colony stimulating factor-3, CSF-beta, colony stimulating factor-beta, G-CSA, granulocytic neutrophil colony stimulating activity, Pluripoietin-beta)

¥ levels are 27.34 ± 8.00 ng/L in normal controls and 26.76 ± 7.26 ng/L in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Serum in 27 cases with chronic idiopathic neutropenia is 134.04 ± 89.29 ng/L Wang et al, 2002)
¥ serum levels in nonpregnant women: 20.3 ± 10.1 pg/mL; serum levels in normal pregnant women (third trimester): 38.3 ± 15.3 pg/mL; levels in postpartum subjects: 20.7 ± 9.1 pg/mL. Levels in mild preeclamptic patients: 56.9 ± 18.8 pg/mL; levels in severe preeclamptic patients: 73.2 ± 30.4 pg/mL; levels in preeclamptic patients with edema: 75.5 ± 25.0 pg/mL; levels in nonedematous patients: 44.7 ± 14.9 pg/mL (Matsubara et al, 1999)
¥ serum level in ovulatory phase of menstrual cycle: 28.0 ± 3.1 pg/mL; serum levels in other phases of menstrual cycle: 10.7 ± 0.6 pg/mL (Makinoda et al, 1996)
¥ mean serum levels in pregnant controls: 17 ± 5 pg/mL; after delivery: 83 ± 16 pg/mL in controls; in controls at delivery: 165 ± 61 pg/mL. 51 ± 17 pg/mL for cord blood in controls. In pregnant women with chorioamnionitis: 1397 ± 950 pg/mL; at delivery in women with chorioamnionitis: 2752 ± 1100 pg/mL; after delivery in women with chorioamnionitis: 839 ± 594 pg/mL; 2729 ± 974 pg/mL for cord blood in women with chorioamnionitis (Li et al, 1995)
¥ serum levels in healthy neonates: 176 ± 19 pg/mL; in neonates with signs of infection between 4 and 7 hours after birth: 1,312 ± 396 pg/mL (Gessler et al, 1993)
¥ plasma levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: 57.9 ± 186 [13.8 ± 15.1] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 16.8 ± 25.1 [10.9 ± 15.9] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 7.84 ± 12.86 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 1.83 ± 0 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 7.09 ± 7.97 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

ghrelin (GHRL, MTLRP, motilin-related peptide, GHSR ligand, growth hormone secretagogue receptor ligand, GGDT, ghrelin gene-derived transcript)

¥ plasma concentration in healthy human blood: 117.2 84 ± 37.2 fmol/mL (Kojima et al, 1999)
¥ median (interquartile range) serum concentrations in infants: 922.11 (868.44) pg/mL; in lactating mothers: 667.88 (942.78) pg/mL (Savino et al, 2012)
¥ median (interquartile range) in breast milk: 526.4 (439.86) pg/mL (Savino et al, 2012)
¥ Fasting and post-prandial plasma levels in patients with narcolepsy: 589.5 ± 88 pg/mL; in normal controls: 686.9 ± 81 pg/mL (Huda et al, 2013)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

Glicentin

¥ Plasma basal concentrations in normal birthweight and low-birthweight infants 1 or 2 d after birth: 1098 and 1240 pg/mL; 5 or 6 d after birth: 2496 and 2190 pg/mL; at 14 d after birth: 2987 and 2817 pg/mL; in very-low birthweight infants at 1 or 2 d after birth: 1864 pg/mL); at 5 or 6 d after birth: 1910 pg/mL (Tadokoro et al, 2003)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: September 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

Glypican-3 (GPC3, MXR7, OCI-5)

¥ serum levels in healthy controls: 0.65 ± 0.32 ng/mL; in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: 4.84 ± 8.91 ng/mL; in patients with liver cirrhosis: 1.09 ± 0.74 ng/mL (Hippo et al, 2004)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: June 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

GM-CSF (Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, BPA, burst promoting activity, CSF-2, colony stimulating factor-2, GM-CSA, Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating activity, MGI-1GM, macrophage-granulocyte inducer, Pluripoietin-alpha)

¥ serum levels in patients with Felty's syndrome: median, 2.82 pg/mL; interquartile range 2.64-3.19 pg/mL) compared with patients with rheumatoid arthritis (2.52 pg/mL; 2.28-2.72 pg/mL; p = 0.012) and healthy controls (2.23 pg/mL; 2.04-2.52; p<0.001) (Hellmich et al, 2004).
¥ serum levels significantly elevated in patients with infectious and noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (33.2 ± 45.7 pg/mL, controls: 17.2 ± 9.8 pg/mL; p=0.0303) (Torre et al, 2003)
¥ levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of normal subjects: 19 ± 4 pg/mL; levels in fluids from patients with chronic bronchitis: 36 ± 5 pg/mL; serum levels in patients under baseline conditions: 1.4 ± 0.4 pg/mL; serum levels in chronic bronchitic patients with an exacerbation: 13 ± 1 pg/mL (Balbi et al, 1997)
¥ plasma concentrations in hypertensive versus normotensive controls: 6.5 ± 1.3 vs. 2.3 ± 0.7 pg/mL (Parissis et al, 2002)
¥ plasma levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: 54.9 ± 82.5 [10.9 ± 16.2] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 112 ± 273 [32.0 ± 51.7] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 117.08 ± 127.51 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 112.47 ± 161.4 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 79.09 ± 134.36 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

gp130 (IL6ST, IL6 signal transducer, IL6R-beta, IL6RB, CDw130, CD130)

¥ gp130 (soluble median serum levels in untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: 480 pg/mL (range 310 - 730); median levels in patients treated with cladribine (2-CdA): 470 pg/mL (range 330 - 970); median levels in normal control group: 420 pg/mL (range 310 - 710) (Robak et al, 1999)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

haptoglobin

¥ serum levels of alpha subunit above above 1.9 U are associated with a trend towards worse survival in patients with small cell lung cancer (Bharti et al, 2004)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

HB-EGF (Heparin binding EGF-like factor, Heparin binding EGF-like growth factor, par-2, prostate apoptosis response protein 2)

¥ urinary HB-EGF concentration increased sevenfold from 1.5 ± 2. 1 to 11.0 ± 1.7 ng/mL after 5 days of sacral third nerve root (S3) percutaneous neurostimulation in patients with interstitial cystitis (Chai et al, 2000)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

HGF (hepatocyte growth factor, HGF/SF, Hepatocyte growth factor-scatter factor, F-TCF, fibroblast tumor cytotoxic factor, HPTA, Hepatopoietin A, SF, scatter factor, TCF, tumor cytotoxic factor)

¥ cerebrospinal fluid levels, normal patients: 346 ± 126 pg/mL), representing approximately half of the HGF serum concentrations; cerebrospinal fluid levels in chronic CNS disease and in aseptic meningitis: 419 ± 71 pg/mL; cerebrospinal fluid levels in patients with bacterial meningitis: 6101 ± 5200 pg/mL (Kern et al, 2001)
¥ basal serum levels in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (Efimova et al, 2004) are significantly higher in carcinoma patients than in healthy patients (1,573 ± 131 vs. 778 ± 64 pg/mL; p <0.001). Postoperative rise of HGF in healthy patients is higher (9,608 ± 3111 vs. 2,060 ± 148 pg/mL) than in carcinoma patients.
¥ serum levels in patients with biliary atresia (Vejchapipat et al, 2004). Group A (good), jaundice-free patients (total bilirubin < 2.0 mg%); group B (fair), patients with mild to moderate jaundice (total bilirubin, 2 to 10 mg%); group C (poor), patients with marked jaundice (total bilirubin > 10 mg%). Serum HGF in controls and groups A, B, and C are 0.24 ± 0.03, 0.28 ± 0.04, 0.36 ± 0.09, and 0.56 ± 0.07 ng/mL, respectively.
¥ serum levels in patients with inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma: 0.58 ± 0.43 ng/mL; in normal controls: 0.14 ± 0.04 ng/mL (Vejchapipat et al, 2004)
¥ serum HGF levels above 500 pg/mL are associated with a trend towards worse survival in patients with small cell lung cancer (Bharti et al, 2004)
¥ serum concentrations studied in lung transplantation patients (Aharinejad et al, 2004). Mean baseline serum concentration: 645 ng/L (SD 259) in controls, 1358 ng/L (603) in patients before transplantation; in patients with no events after transplantation: 1147 ng/L (510); in patients with infection after transplantation: 1559 ng/L (323); in patients with rejection: 3972 ng/L [1463], p<0.0001).
¥ serum levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing early reperfusion therapy (Seko et al, 2004). Mean serum levels 3638 ± 1285 pg/mL compared with 59 ± 13 pg/mL in controls. After reperfusion: 15146 ± 2230 pg/mL.
¥ median serum levels in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are 1019 pg/mL as compared to 689 pg/mL in healthy controls (Hsiao et al, 2003).
¥ mean serum levels in patients with multiple myeloma: 2.17 ng/mL, and 0.45 ng/mL in normal controls (Iwasaki et al, 2002)
¥ serum levels in Crohn disease patients: 1439 ± 84 pg/mL; in patients with ulcerative colitis: 1384 ± 107 pg/mL; in normal control patients: 807 ± 50 pg/mL (Srivastava et al, 2001)
¥ median pretreatment values in myeloma patients responding to chemotherapy: 1429 pg/mL; post-treatment 1077 pg/mL. (Sezer et al, 2001)
¥ median serum HGF values were 1.4 ng/mL (maternal venous), 1.2 ng/mL (cord venous), and 1.3 ng/mL (cord arterial) (Somerset et al, 2000)
¥ median intravitreous concentrations in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy: 17.04 ng/mL (9.98-80); 5.88 ng/mL (2.57-14.20) in non-diabetic patients; Intravitreous HGF concentrations versus serum values in diabetic patients: 17.04 ng/mL (9. 98-80) versus 0.66 ng/mL (0.26-1.26); Intravitreous HGF concentrations versus serum values in control group: 5.88 ng/mL (2.57-14.20) versus 0.68 ng/mL (0.49-0.96) (Canton et al, 2000)
¥ serum levels in control group: 0.12 ± 0.12 ng/mL; in patients with acute phase acute renal failure: 0.55 ± 0.24 ng/mL; in patients with chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis: 0.44 ± 0.37 ng/mL (Nishida et al, 1999)
¥ average levels of serum in 89 healthy control subjects: 0.31 ± 0.11 ng/mL; 104 patients with primary gastric cancer: 0.42 ± 0.50 ng/mL; 15 patients with recurrent gastric cancer: 0.92 ± 0.39 ng/mL (Taniguchi et al, 1997)
¥ median serum levels in patients with alcoholic hepatitis: 0.9 ng/mL; range 0.6-7.7 ng/mL; normal < 0.5 ng/mL) (Hillan et al, 1996)
¥ median serum level in healthy controls: 0.44 ng/mL; in 43 % of myeloma patients: 1.00 ng/mL (Seidel et al, 1998)
¥ mean serum levels in diabetic subjects (n = 62) without retinopathy: 0.041 ± 0.003 ng/mL; in nondiabetic subjects: 0.080 ± 0.010 ng/mL (n = 80); in diabetic subjects (n = 26) with background retinopathy: 0.058 ± 0.007 ng/mL or preproliferative retinopathy (n = 10): 0.048 ± 0.010 ng/mL; in subjects (n = 24) with proliferative retinopathywithout photocoagulation (0.213 ± 0.025 ng/mL; in patients (n = 13) after photocoagulation: 0.040 ± 0.008 ng/mL (Nishimura et al, 1998)
¥ average serum levels in normal volunteers: 0.10 ng/mL; average serum levels in patients with extracapillary glomerulonephritis: 0.73 ng/mL; in patients with non-crescentic glomerular disease: 0.18 ng/mL (Rampino et al, 2005)
¥ median serum levels in patients with stage I multiple myeloma: 1,432.4 pg/mL; in patients with stage II multiple myeloma: 1,743.8 pg/mL; in patients with stage III multiple myeloma: 1,990.4 pg/mL (Alexandrakis et al, 2003)
¥ mean level in amniotic fluid in second trimester: 12.4 ± 4.5 ng/mL; in third trimester: 10.5 ± 6.6 ng/mL. Level in fetal urine: 0.10 ng/mL); level in first neonatal urine: 0.08 ± 0.02 ng/mL (Kurauchi et al, 1995)
¥ serum concentration acute renal failure patients: 478 ± 68 ng/dL; in chronic renal failure patients not on dialysis: 20 ± 3 ng/dL); in patients on regular dialysis treatment: 25 ± 3 ng/dL (Libetta et al, 1998)
¥ baseline serum concentration in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: 1743 ± 73; in normal controls: 948 ± 54 pg/mL (Hu et al, 1999)
¥
serum levels in patients with untreated prostate cancer: 0.37 ± 0.12 ng/mL; in patients with benign prostatic disease (0.28 ± 0.08 ng/mL (Yasuda et al, 2009)
¥ levels in cerebrospinal fluid in patients with malignant glioma: 847 ± 154 pg/mL; in patients with meningioma: 430 ± 28 pg/mL; in patients with glioblastoma multiforme: 893 ± 157 pg/mL; in patients with astrocytoma: 728 ± 61 pg/mL; in healthy controls: 204 ± 28 pg/mL (Garcia-Navarrete et al, 2010)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: June 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

histatins

¥ mean concentrations in parotid saliva of normal subjects (Sugiyama and Ogata, 1993):
histatin-1 11.25 ± 5.65 mumol/L
histatin-3 8.15 ± 3.08 mumol/L
histatin-5 7.67 ± 3.12 mumol/L
histatin-6 1.56 ± 0.53 mumol/L
¥ average total histatin concentration (histatin-1 + histatin-3 + histatin-5) in whole saliva: 33.3 ± 16.7 microg/mL (Campese et al, 2009)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRGP, HRG)

¥ plasma levels in normal controls: 11.8 ± 2.7 mg/dL; in patients with with advanced hepatic cirrhosis: 7.0 ± 2.5 mg/dL (Saito et al, 1982)
¥ serum levels in healthy controls (women): 109 ± 25 g/L; in women (6 weeks postpartum): 107 ± 13 g/L; in last trimester of pregnancy (36-37th week): 49 ± 14 g/L; in oral contraceptive users: 74 ± 22 g/L (Haukkamaa et al 1983)
¥ serum levels in healthy controls: 12.5 ± 3.0 mg/dL; in patients with AIDS: 5.7 ± 1.8 mg/dL; in patients with in end-stage renal disease after renal transplantation with steroid therapy: 4.4 ± 1.1 mg/dL; in asthmatic and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients receiving steroids in acute high-dose regimens: 7.6 ± 2.9 mg/dL; in asthmatic and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients receiving steroids chronic high-dose regimens: 7.4 ± 3.0 mg/dL (Morgan, 1986)
¥ plasma levels in healthy donors: 110.3 ± 9.7 mg/L; plasma levels in patients with liver cirrhosis: 79.5 ± 12.6 mg/L (Xu K and Chen Z, 1999)

¥ concentration in human colostrum: 0.13-10 micrograms/mL (Hutchens et al, 1992)

¥ concentration in human mature milk: 0.1-10 micrograms/mL (Hutchens et al, 1992)
Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: August 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

HLA-G (soluble) (Human leukocyte antigen G, HLA-6.0, HLA60, Qa)

¥ mean plasma levels in males: 24.9 ± 3.0 SEM ng/mL); in females: 20.1 ± 2.1 SEM ng/mL). Mean plasma levels in HLA-A11 positive probands: 13.0 ± 4.4 SEM ng/mL); in HLA-A11 negative probands: 24.5 ± 2.0 SEM ng/mL). Mean plasma levels in women at delivery: 22.9 ± 2.2 SEM ng/mL); in the corresponding cord blood: 13.8 ± 1.5 SEM ng/mL). Mean plasma levels in amniotic fluids: 15.5 + 1.0 SEM ng/mL (Rebmann et al, 1999).
¥ mean soluble HLA-G levels in individuals with: the HLA-G allele G*01011: 27.0 ± 2.1 SEM ng/mL; the G*01012 allele: 28.4 ± 3.2 SEM ng/mL; the HLA-G*01013 allele: 8.1 ± 1.7 SEM ng/mL; the "null" allele HLA-G*0105N: 8.2 ± 3.2 SEM ng/mL; the HLA-G*01041 allele: 42.5 ± 4.6 SEM ng/mL (Rebmann et al, 2001).
¥ median serum level in woman with normal pregnancy: 0.093 microg/mL; median level in placentae of women with normal pregnancy: 0.088 microg/mg protein
median serum level in women with preeclampsia: 0.026 microg/mL; median level in the placenta of women with preeclampsia: 0.026 microg/mg protein (Yie et al, 2004)
¥ Rudstein-Svetlicky et al (2006) have reported that soluble HLA-G levels as determined by ELISA in plasma are almost invariably higher than those from serum. This may be true to trapping or consumption of HLA-G during clot formation. The authors recommend that HLA-G be determined in plasma. Serum levels might be erroneous, because true plasma levels of the protein can be significantly higher.


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: November 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

hsp70 (heat shock protein 70)

¥ serum levels in severe preeclamptic patients with HELLP syndrome: 2.02 ng/mL (0.76-2.23; 25-75 percentile); 0.54 ng/mL (0.47-0.79; 25-75 percentile) in severe preeclamptic patients without HELLP syndrome; 0.30 ng/mL (0.27-0.33; 25-75 percentile) in normal controls (Molvarec et al, 2007)
¥ Mean serum concentrations in patients with severe traumatic brain injury: 97.6 ng/mL; in same patients 24 hrs lates: 48.1 ng/mL; in same patients 7 days later: 39.2 ng/mL; in control subjects: 12.2 ng/mL (da Rocha et al, 2005)
¥ Serum levels in patients with Diabetic ketoacidosis before treatment: 40.8 ± 6.9 ng/mL; in euglycemic type 1 diabetes mellitus controls: 33.6 ± 3.2 ng/mL (Oglesbee et al, 2005)
¥ serum levels in normal pregnant women: 8.6 ± 1.9 ng/mL (first trimester), 5.5 ± 1.0 ng/mL (second trimester), 5.5 ± 0.7 ng/mL (third trimester); mean levels in preterm delivery high-risk patients with a tocolysis index of three points or above: 21.9 ± 5.3 ng/mL; mean levels in preterm delivery high-risk patients with preterm delivery: 35.3 ± 9.6 ng/mL; mean levels in preterm delivery high-risk patients with full-term delivery: 9.4 ± 2.2 ng/mL; mean levels in pre-eclampsia patients: 24.4 ± 3.6 ng/mL; mean levels in normal pregnant women: 6.1 ± 0.6 ng/mL; mean levels in normal non-pregnant women: 2.4 ± 0.6 ng/mL (Fukushima et al, 2005)
¥ serum levels in patients with chronic heart failure: 7.13 ± 1.34 ng/mL; in normal control subjects: 0.38 ± 0.26 ng/mL (Genth-Zotz et al;, 2004)
¥ Median plasma levels in prostate cancer patients with localized untreated disease: 0.8 ng/mL; interquartile range, 0.5-2.0); in normal control group: 0.5 ng/mL; interquartile range, 0.3-0.8 (Abe et al, 2004)
¥ median levels in pneumococcal shock plasma: 543 ng/mL (range, 468-962 ng/mL); in meningococcal shock plasma: 81.5 ng/mL (range, 41-331 ng/mL); in meningococcal non-shock plasma: 24 ng/mL (range, < 0.8-41 ng/mL) (Bjerre et al, 2003)
¥ median serum levels in controls: 1.01 (SD ± 1.38) ng/mL; median serum levels in preeclamptic women: 2.82 ng/mL (SD ± 8.33); median serum levels in women with late onset of severe preeclampsia: 0.52 ng/mL (SD ± 1.14) (in normotensive controls: 0.86 (SD ± 1.29) ng/mL); median serum levels in women with early onset of severe preeclampsia: 4.94 ng/mL (SD ± 10.46) (in normotensive controls: 1.33 (SD ± 2.28) ng/mL) (Jirecek et al, 2002)

Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2008


_____________________________________________________________________________

IFN-gamma (IFNG, Gamma-Interferon, gIFN)

¥ serum concentrations in children: 187.1 pg/mL ( ± 372.9); in children 6-10 years after an infection with Respiratory syncytial virus: 224.9 pg/mL (standard deviation (SD) 271.3) (Juntti et al, 2005)
¥ mean serum levels in patients with tuberculosis before therapy: 10.83 pg/mL (range 1-22.2 pg/mL); 2 months after therapy: 4.64 pg/mL (range 1-28.5 pg/mL) (Berktas et al, 2004)
¥ median maternal serum levels after vaginal delivery: 4.7 (2.2-11.17) pg/mL; after Caesarian delivery: 3.85 (0.0-8.5) pg/mL; median umbilical cord serum levels after vaginal delivery: 3.95 (0.2-10-46) pg/mL; after Caesarian delivery: 2.13 (0.0-6.8) pg/mL; (Malamitsi-Puchner et al, 2005)
¥ mean plasma levels [pg/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 55 (104); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 102 (594); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 201 (100); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 89 (39); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 534 (242); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 54 (34); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 101 (286); with diabetes: 70 (274) (de Jager et al, 2007)
¥ serum levels in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with diffuse skin fibrosis with more severe internal organ involvement: 1.38 ± 1.09 pg/mL; serum levels in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with limited cutaneous involvement: 1.17 ± 0.2 pg/mL; levels in normal controls: 1.58 ± 0.2 pg/mL (Scala et al, 2004)
¥ plasma levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: 62.6 ± 89.7 [201 ± 699] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 69.3 ± 226 [25.0 ± 30.4] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 3.51 ± 1.86 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 4.87 ± 2.55 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 2.75 ± 1.24 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

IGF-1 (Insulin-like growth factor-1, Erythropoietic factor, mechano growth factor, MGF, ILGF1, somatomedin C, NSILA, non-suppressible insulin-like activity, Somatomedin A, Somatomedin C, sulfation factor, Mecasermin)

¥ serum samples in a Singapore Chinese cohort (312 men, 326 postmenopausal women ages 50 years or older; mean age: 61) show mean IGF-1 concentration of 144 ng/mL for men and 121 ng/mL for women. IGF-1 levels decreased with age (P for trend <0.0001) (Probst-Hensch et al, 2003)
¥ Serum concentrations in cystic fibrosis patients and in healthy subjects are 123.35 versus 149.8 ng/mL, respectively (Ozen et al, 2004).
¥ Age-adjusted serum levels (88 ± 49 versus 122 ± 47 [ng/mL], p<0.023) are significantly lower in frail versus non-frail geriatric individuals (Leng et al, 2004).
¥ serum concentration in prostate cancer patients: 178 ± 19 ng/mL, in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients: 136 ± 9 ng/mL (p < 0.05) (Trapeznikova et al, 2004)
¥ serum levels in 272 healthy adolescents and adults between 15-75 years of age. Females: 357.909 ± 219.167 mg/L); males: 307.962 ± 198.41 mg/L (Tiryakioglu et al, 2003)
¥ Low serum values correlate with later development of retinopathy of prematurity in premature infants. Mean IGF-1 ± SEM level during postmenstrual ages 30-33 weeks with severe retinopathy is 25 ± 2.41 micro g/L). Levels are 29 ± 1.76 micro g/L with moderate retinopathy, and 33 ± 1.72 micro g/L with no retinopathy (Hellstrom et al, 2003)
¥ serum levels decrease from 38.3 ± 19.0 ng/mL (mean ± SD) to 26.8 ± 12.8 ng/mL (p <0.001) after withdrawal of thyroxine and increase to 43.8 ± 20.2 ng/mL (p <0.001) after thyroxine is resumed in 28 patients receiving thyroxine therapy after thyroidectomy for well-differentiated thyroid cancer (Wu et al, 2003)
¥ serum levels were determined in patients with liver cirrhosis (Child score index A (n = 26), B (n = 9), C (n = 5) (Vyzantiadis et al, 2003). Serum levels in patients with liver cirrhosis 57.4 ± 7.0 ng/mL versus 198.8 ± 16.3 ng/mL in healthy controls. Child B and C patients had 28.9 ± 3.0 ng/mL as opposed to 72.8 ± 9.3 ng/mL in Child A patients. Mean values in 12 patients with viral induced cirrhosis (Child A) are 84.2 ± 16 ng/mL and 63.1 ± 10.3 ng/mL in 14 patients with non-viral cirrhosis.
¥ serum levels in children with osteoporosis: 583 ng/mL, as opposed to controls: 850 ng/mL; differences independent on biological age of the studied children and present in all adolescence stages (24 children aged 7-18 years, including 12 with idiopathic osteoporosis, and 12 control children) (Chlebna-Sokol and Rusinska, 2001)
¥ normal serum levels: 281.3 ± 53.9 ng/mL; levels in patients with lung cancer: 207.9 ± 62.6 ng/mL; levels in patients with non-small cell lung cancer: 194.0 ± 62.9 ng/mL; levels in patients with small cell lung cancer: 258.4 ± 27.8 ng/mL (Lee et al, 1999)
¥ mean serum levels in 46 growing preterm infants on enteral nutrition (mean age of 35.3 ± 17.2 days): 64 ± 36 ng/mL (Colonna et al, 1996)
¥ urinary concentrations in older children: 82.7 ± 82.8 ng/L; in healthy sedentary young: 103.5 ± 83.3 ng/L; in older sedentary adults: 80.4 ± 64.4 ng/L (De Palo et al, 2002)
¥ total urine values in normal young adults: 267.9 ± 112.9 ng/day and 167.8 ± 73.2 ng/g creatinine. Values in early morning urine: 60 - 1,100 ng/gCr with a mean value of 309.6 ng/g creatinine in normal adults aged 21-80 yrs (Yamamoto and Kato, 1992)
¥ mean serum levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C and serum fibrosis (METAVIR fibrosis stage F0, F1-F2, F3, F4). In patients with advanced fibrosis (F4): 65.9 ± 17.9 ng/mL); in patients with F0: 145.2 ± 47.1; in patients with F1-F2: 150.3 ± 89.6; in patients with F3: 121.4 ± 35.2 ng/mL (Lorenzo-Zœ–iga V et al, 2007)
¥ serum levels in patients with liver cirrhosis without hepatocellular carcinoma: 70 ± 10 microg/L; in patients with liver cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma: 65 ± 7 microg/L; in normal controls: 185 ± 6.4 microg/L (Mattera et al, 2003)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2008


_____________________________________________________________________________

IGF-2 (Insulin-like growth factor-2, Growth-promoting activity for vascular endothelial cells, T3M-11-derived growth factor, ILGF2, MSA, multiplication stimulating activity, NSILA, non-suppressible insulin-like activity, Somatomedin A, sulfation factor, SGF, skeletal growth factor, HP1-SMP, HP3-SMP, Somatomedin/insulin-like growth factor-like polypeptides)

¥ serum concentration in prostate cancer patients: 400 ± 31 ng/mL, in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients: 351 ± 23 ng/mL (p < 0.05) (Trapeznikova et al, 2004)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

IGFBP1 (Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, IGF binding protein-1, 34 k IGFBP, AFBP, amniotic fluid binding protein, Alpha-pregnancy-associated endometrial globulin, Binding protein-25, Binding protein-26, Binding protein-28, BP-34, BP-3A, endometrial protein 14, Growth hormone independent binding protein, IGF-BP25, PP12, placental protein 12, pregnancy-associated endometrial alpha-1-globulin)

¥ serum levels in prepubertal control children: 76.0 ± 62.9 ng/mL; in age-matched obese children: 22.1 ± 18.4 ng/mL (Saitoh et al, 1998)
¥ mean maternal serum level in pregnancies with trisomy 18 fetuses: 108.8 ± 6.1 microgram/L; maternal serum levels with normal fetuses: 36.7 ± 1.9 microgram/L (Miell et al, 1997)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

IGFBP2 (Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2, IGF binding protein-2)

¥ serum levels in obese children versus controls are 4.6 ± 0.5 versus 6.6 ± 0.7% nmol/l (Ballerini et al, 2004)
¥ levels in controls: 696.2 ± 300.5 ng/mL; levels in patients with lung cancer: 1303.7 ± 618.0 ng/mL
¥ mean maternal serum level in pregnancies with trisomy 18 fetuses: 81.2 ± 5.5 microgram/L; maternal serum levels with normal fetuses: 10.2 micrograms/L (Miell et al, 1997)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

IGFBP3 (Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, IGF binding protein-3, BP-53, Growth hormone dependent binding protein, Binding protein-29)

¥ serum samples in a Singapore Chinese cohort (312 men, 326 postmenopausal women ages 50 years or older; mean age: 61) show IGFBP3 concentrations of 3710 ng/mL for men and 4147 ng/mL for women. IGFBP3 levels decreased with age (P for trend <0.0001) (Probst-Hensch et al, 2003).
¥ serum levels in prepubertal cystic fibrosis patients are lower than in healthy subjects (2457 vs. 3249 ng/mL) (P < 0.05) (Ozen et al, 2004).
¥ serum levels in children with osteoporosis: 3593 ng/mL versus. 3955 ng/mL in healthy controls) (24 children aged 7-18 years, including 12 with idiopathic osteoporosis, and 12 control children) (Chlebna-Sokol and Rusinska, 2001)
¥ serum levels in patients with chronic liver disease: 1643.47 ± 60.68 ng/mL versus 2728.87 ± 284.61 ng/mL, in healthy controls (Okan et al, 2000)
¥ mean serum levels in 46 growing preterm infants on enteral nutrition (mean age of 35.3 ± 17.2 days): 1.15 ± 0.53 mg/L (Colonna et al, 1996)
¥ serum levels in patients with liver cirrhosis without hepatocellular carcinoma: 1225 ± 113 microg/L; in patients with liver cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma: 984 ± 67 microg/L; in normal controls: 3017 ± 80 microg/L (Mattera et al, 2003)
¥
median value in plasma from non-malignant patients: 119467.1 pg/mL (range: 20164.6 - 174498 pg/mL); in patients with gastric carcinoma: 110395.1 pg/mL (range: 0 - 979359.6 pg/mL) (Rajkumar et al, 2010)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

IGFBP6 (Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-6, IGF binding protein-6)

¥ normal serum values: 131 ± 42 ng/mL. In children with chronic renal failure and growth retardation under conservative treatment: 392 ± 177 ng/mL) and under hemodialysis: 2094 ± 1525 ng/mL (Houang et al, 2000)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL1-alpha (IL1A, interleukin-1-alpha, IL1F1, Interleukin-1 family member 1, BAF, B-cell activating factor, BCAF, B-cell activating factor, EP, endogenous pyrogens, LAF, lymphocyte activating factor, LEM, leukocyte endogenous mediator, MCF, mononuclear cell factor, MNCF, mononuclear cell factor, MP, mitogenic protein, TRF-3, T-cell replacing factor-3, Tumor inhibitory factor-2)

¥ mean plasma levels [pg/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 0.1 (0.0); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 0.3 (0.3); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 15 (7.5); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 0.3 (0.2); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 22 (21); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 1.1 (0.9); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 0.3 (0.2); with diabetes: 0.9 (1.6) (de Jager et al, 2007)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: June 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL1-beta (IL1B, interleukin-1-beta)

¥ normal serum levels of IL1-beta: 0.16 ± 0.17 pg/mL, and 0.53 ± 0.57 pg/mL in patients with renal carcinoma (Yoshida et al, 2002)
¥ average serum levels in controls: 1.29 pg/mL; average levels in patients with nonalcoholic fattiy liver: 2.57 pg/mL (…zbek et al, 2003)
¥ mean(SD) serum levels in controls: 0.3(0.5) pg/mL; in patients with angina and < 50% coronary artery stenosis (n = 11; 18.8(19.9) pg/mL), patients with angina > or = 50% stenosis (n = 23; 10.2(11.4) pg/mL), patients 8(0.8) days post-infarction (n = 13; 4.4(5.8) pg/mL) (Hasdai et al, 1996)
¥ median maternal serum levels after vaginal delivery: 245 (45-464) pg/mL; after Caesarian delivery: 139 (15-264) pg/mL; median umbilical cord serum levels after vaginal delivery: 33 (5.9-148) pg/mL; after Caesarian delivery: 12.8 (0.0-68) pg/mL; neonatal day 1 serum after vaginal delivery: 45 (15-240) pg/mL; neonatal day 1 serum after Caesarian delivery: 18.6 (4.3-160) pg/mL (Malamitsi-Puchner et al, 2005)
¥ serum levels in normal controls: 16.0 ± 6.7 pg/mL; serum levels in patients with pancreatitis: 38.5 ± 28.8 pg/mL (Bamba et al, 1994)
¥ mean plasma levels [pg/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 1.2 (0.6); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 9.9 (8.7); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 16 (6.3); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 2.5 (1.6); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 50 (38); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 0.7 (0.6); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 2.5 (1.3); with diabetes: 2.3 (13) (de Jager et al, 2007)
¥ median serum levels in untreated patients with Graves' disease versus controls: 18.7 vs. 34.0 pg/mL (Pedro et al, 2011)
¥ serum levels in patients with periprosthetic osteolysis having received a cementless hip prosthesis: 2.15 ± 1.37 pg/mL; serum level in patients without osteolysis: 2.26 ± 0.89 pg/mL; serum levels in normal controls: 2.02 ± 1.25 pg/mL (Fiorito et al, 2003)
¥ serum levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and high plasma PTHrP levels: 1.2 ± 0.3 pg/mL; serum levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and low plasma PTHrP levels: 1.3 ± 0.6 pg/mL; serum levels in normal controls: < 0.567 pg/mL (Takahashi et al, 2003)
¥ serum levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: 3.82 ± 3.0 pg/mL; in healthy controls: 8.35 ± 6.20 pg/mL (Chen H et al, 2012)
¥ plasma levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: 4.1 ± 4.7 [2.1 ± 1.4] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 3.72 ± 9.98 [1.68 ± 1.88] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 4.96 ± 4.16 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 5.40 ± 0.85 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL1ra (IL1 receptor antagonist, IL1RN, IL1 inhibitor, IRAP, IL1 receptor antagonist protein, IL1 inhibitory activity, ILS, IL1F3, IL1 family member 3)

¥ serum levels determined in patients receiving G-CSF during engraftment following allogeneic stem cell transplantation (Schwabe et al, 2004). Peak IL1ra plasma level observed on day + 19: 882.3 ± 879.2 pg mL(-1) (mean ± SD) compared with 285.8 ± 175.2 pg mL(-1) (mean ± SD) in patients not receiving G-CSF (P = 0.0130)
¥ serum levels in women with normal menstrual cycle: 829 ± 292 pg/mL (Loret de Mola et al, 1996)
¥ mean serum levels in normal women: 189 ± 22 pg/mL; in the osteoporotic women (143 ± 21 pg/mL (Kosla et al, 1994)
¥
plasma levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: 471 ± 453 [1,160 ± 1,560] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 430 ± 509 [522 ± 5770] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 57.23 ± 72.86 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 270.19 ± 348.88 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 80.78 ± 129.28 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL1RL1 (IL1 receptor-like-1, T1, T1/ST2, ST2, ST2L, DER4, delayed early response gene 4, Fit-1, fos-induced transcript-1, Ly84, lymphocyte antigen 84, IL33R)

¥ serum levels of soluble IL1RL1 (sST2) in healthy subjects: 32.4 (19-49) pg/mL (D’az-JimŽnez et al, 2011)
¥ serum levels of soluble IL1RL1(sST2) in healthy subjects: 49 (4-89) pg/mL (Bartunek et al, 2008)
¥ serum levels in patients with aortic stenosis: 103 [65, 165] pg/mL) and congestive cardiomyopathy: 194 [69, 551] pg/mL (Bartunek et al, 2008)
¥ soluble IL1RL1 serum levels are higher in males than in females, and slightly increase between 18 and 24 years in age (Dieplinger et al, 2009; D’az-JimŽnez et al, 2011)
¥ serum soluble IL1RL1(sST2) levels in patients with active [235.80 (90.65-367.90) pg/mL] and inactive ulcerative colitis [33.19 (20.04-65.32) pg/mL] (D’az-JimŽnez et al, 2011)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL2 (Interleukin-2, BF, blastogenic factor, EDF, eosinophil differentiation factor, KHF, killer cell helper factor, LMF, lymphocyte mitogenic factor, LPF, lymphocyte proliferation factor, MAF-C I, macrophage-activating factor for cytotoxicity I, PFC-EA, plaque forming cell enhancing factor, SCIF, secondary cytotoxic T-cell inducing factor, TCGF, T-cell growth factor, TCPA, T colony-promoting activity, TDF, thymocyte differentiation factor, T-LPF, T-lymphocyte promotor factor, TMF, thymocyte mitogenic factor, T-cell maturation factor, T-cell mitogenic factor, TRF-3, T-cell replacing factor-3, TSF, thymocyte stimulating factor)

¥ mean serum levels in patients with tuberculosis before therapy: 164.5 pg/mL (range 12-980 pg/mL); 2 months after therapy: 92.11 pg/mL (range 1-490 pg/mL) (Berktas et al, 2004)
¥ plasma levels in normal controls: 2.4 ± 0.8 pg/mL; in patients with acute ischemic syndrome: 10.8 ± 1.8 pg/mL; in patients with stable angina: 6.3 ± 0.6 pg/mL (Mazzone et al, 1999)
¥ mean plasma levels [pg/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 0.1 (0.1); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 0.1 (0.1); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 3.8 (2.3); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 0.2 (0.2); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 4.2 (3.9); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 0.1 (0.1); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 0.2 (0.1); with diabetes: 0.1 (0.7) (de Jager et al, 2007)
¥ serum levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: 17.10 ± 13.08 pg/mL; in healthy controls: 13.12 ± 10.45 pg/mL (Chen H et al, 2012)
¥ plasma levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: 25.1 ± 38.3 [7.8 ± 11.8] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 17.3 ± 52.6 [6.28 ± 11.2] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 20.24 ± 24.91 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 40.17 ± 29.61 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 19.23 ± 26.47 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL2 receptors

¥ maternal serum IL2 receptor level for patients with threatened abortion: 481.3 ± 35.7 U/mL, compared with 426.5 ± 22.4 U/mL in normal pregnant group. Maternal serum levels in patients with pathologic pregnancies than in those with normal pregnancies (506.2 ± 27.6 U/mL versus 426.5 ± 22.4 U/mL) (Gucer et al, 2001)
¥ neonatal day 1 serum after vaginal delivery: 838.5 ± 204.6 U/mL; neonatal day 4 serum after vaginal delivery 1662 ± 517.8 U/mL: neonatal day 1 serum after Caesarian delivery: 591.3 ± 225.2 U/mL; neonatal day 4 serum after Caesarian delivery: 1165 ± 495.4U/mL (Malamitsi-Puchner et al, 2005)
¥ median serum levels in untreated patients with Graves' disease versus controls: 292.5 vs. 1,585.0 pg/mL (Pedro et al, 2011)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL3 (Interleukin-3, 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inducing factor, BPA, burst promoting activity, CFU-S, colony-forming unit spleen, CSF-2-alpha, colony stimulating factor-2-alpha, CSF-2-beta, colony stimulating factor-2-beta, ECSF, erythroid colony stimulating factor, Eo-CSF, eosinophil colony stimulating factor, HCGF, Hematopoietic cell growth factor, HP2, Hematopoietin-2, HPGF, hematopoietic cell growth factor, MCGF, mast cell growth factor, MCSA, multi-colony stimulating activity, Meg-CSF, megakaryocyte colony stimulating factor, MGF, mast cell growth factor, Mixed colony stimulating factor, Multi-CSF, Multi-colony stimulating factor, multi-HGF, multilineage hemopoietic growth factor, Multipoietin, NC cell growth factor, natural cytotoxic cell growth factor, Neutrophil-granulocyte colony stimulating factor, PSF, progenitor stimulating factor, PSH, panspecific hemopoietin, SAF, stem cell activating factor, Thy1 inducing factor)

¥ serum levels in patients with Felty's syndrome: 10.05 pg/mL; 8.94-11.98) compared with controls (4.79 pg/mL; 3.72-7.22; p<0.001) and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (9.52 pg/mL; 8.32-10.42; p = 0.17) (Hellmich et al, 2004).


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL4 (Interleukin-4, BCDF-epsilon, B-cell differentiation factor-epsilon, BCDF-gamma, B-cell differentiation factor-gamma, BCGF-gamma, B-cell growth factor-gamma, BCGF-1, B-cell growth factor-1, Binetrakin, BSF-1, B-cell stimulating factor-1, BSF-p1, B-cell stimulating factor p1, EL4-BCGF, EL4 B-cell growth factor, HCGF, Hodgkin's cell growth factor, IgE-EF, IgE enhancing factor, IgG1-enhancing factor, IgG1-induction factor, LMW-BCGF, low molecular weight B-cell growth factor, MaGEF, Mast cell growth enhancing factor, MCGF-2, mast cell growth factor-2, MFF, macrophage fusion factor, Pitrakinra, TCGF-2, T-cell growth factor-2)

¥ serum levels are 4.05 ± 1.02 pg/mL in patients with bronchial hyperreactivity and 3.34 ± 0.84 pg/mL in symptom-free healthy controls (Halasz et al, 2003)
¥ mean serum levels in asthma patients: 15.73 pg/mL; in controls: 13.07 pg/mL (Tavakkol Afshari et al, 2007)
¥ mean plasma levels [pg/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 0.0 (0.0); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 0.2 (0.1); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 4.6 (1.9); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 0.1 (0.1); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 18 (17); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 0.0 (0.0); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 1.1 (1.1); with diabetes: 0.1 (0.1) (de Jager et al, 2007)
¥ plasma levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: 3.3 ± 5.8 [0.5 ± 1.2] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 6.38 ± 20.3 [0.89 ± 1.85] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 0.40 ± 0.32 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 0.27 ± 0 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 0.38 ± 0.43 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL4 receptors, soluble

¥ median maternal serum levels after vaginal delivery: 148.0 (95-398) pg/mL; after Caesarian delivery: 119.3 (59-235) pg/mL (Malamitsi-Puchner et al, 2005)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL5 (Interleukin-5, B151-TRF, B151 T-cell replacing factor, BCDF, B-cell differentiation factors, BCDF-alpha, B-cell differentiation factor-alpha, BCDF-mu, B-cell differentiation factor-mu, BCGF-2, B-cell growth factor-2, DL-BCGF, Dennert cell-derived B-cell growth factor, BGDF, B-cell growth and differentiation factor, CFU-Eo GSF, colony-forming unit eosinophil growth stimulating factor, EDF, eosinophil differentiation factor, Eo-CSF, Eosinophil colony stimulating factor, Eo-DF, eosinophil differentiation factor, ESP, eosinophil stimulation promoter, IgA-EF, IgA enhancing factor, KHF, killer helper factor, TRF-1, T-cell replacing factor-1)

¥ serum levels in children with asthma taking inhaled corticosteroids (mean and 95% CI: 20.5 [11.7-35.7] pg/mL); serum levels in children with asthma on beta-agonists ± cromolyn: 64.3 [26.6-155.4] pg/mL (Hughes et al, 2001)
¥ mean plasma levels [pg/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 0.0 (0.0); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 0.3 (0.3); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 2.4 (1.0); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 1.0 (0.6); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 32 (31); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 0.0 (0.0); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 0.1 (0.1); with diabetes: 1.8 (2.0) (de Jager et al, 2007)
¥ serum levels in untreated patients with Graves' disease versus controls: 1.0 vs. 9.0 pg/mL (Pedro et al, 2011)
¥ serum levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and high plasma PTHrP levels: 8.1 ± 0.2b pg/mL; serum levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and low plasma PTHrP levels: <7.8 pg/mL; serum levels in normal controls: <7.8 pg/mL (Takahashi et al, 2003)
¥ serum levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: 8.01 ± 5.3 pg/mL; in healthy controls: 6.45 ± 3.10 pg/mL (Chen H et al, 2012)
¥ plasma levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: 4.5 ± 8.5 [3.3 ± 7.5] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 6.55 ± 20.5 [2.04 ± 1.81] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 2.06 ± 0.57 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 2.3 ± 0 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 2.58 ± 2.7 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL6 (interleukin-6, 26 kDa protein, BSF-2, B-cell stimulating factor-2, CDF, CAT development factor, choline acetyltransferase development factor, Cytolytic differentiation factor for T-lymphocytes, FDGI, fibroblast-derived growth inhibitor, hybridoma growth factor, HPGF, hybridoma/plasmacytoma growth factor, HSF, hepatocyte stimulating factor, HSF-1, hepatocyte stimulating factor-1, ILHP1, Interleukin-hemopoietin-1, MGI-2A, Macrophage-granulocyte inducer-2A, Myeloma GF, myeloma growth factor, NKAF, natural killer cell activating factor, TAF, T-cell activating factor, Thymocyte growth factor, TSF, thymocyte stimulating factor)

¥ giant-cell arteritis patients with disease-related ischemic events have lower circulating levels of IL6 (13.6 ± 2.1 versus 24 ± 2.4 pg/mL, P=0.002) than patients without ischemic complications (Hernandez-Rodriguez et al, 2003)
¥ serum levels (geometric mean concentrations in pg/mL) in patients with malaria (Lyke et al, 2004). Severe cases versus healthy controls: 485.2 versus 54.1; P = <0.001); severe malaria cases versus uncomplicated malaria controls: 485.2 versus 141.0; P = <0.001; patients with cerebral malaria compared to severe malaria cases without cerebral manifestations: 754.5 versus 311.4; P = <0.001; with severe anemia compared to severe malaria cases with hemoglobin at >5 g/dl: 199.2 versus 487.6; P = 0.03; patients with hyperparasitemia: 336.6 versus 602.1; P = 0.002.
¥ serum levels are 0.73 ± 0.10 pg/mL in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with various degrees of nephropathy and 0.65 ± 0.08 pg/mL in healthy volunteers. Levels in diabetic patients with microalbuminuria or clinical albuminuria are 1.64 ± 1.11 pg/mL, and 0.51 ± 0.05 pg/mL in patients without albuminuria (Morikawa et al, 2003)
¥ normal serum levels are 1.79 ± 2.03 pg/mL, and 8.91 ± 13.12 pg/mL in patients with renal carcinoma (Yoshida et al, 2002)
¥ serum levels of IL6 in hemodialysis patients with hypoalbuminemia: 10.8 ± 2.0; in hemodialysis patients with normoalbuminemia: 6.3 ± 0.5 pg/mL (Odamaki et al, 2002)
¥ median serum levels in newborn infants (n = 32; gestational age 39 ± 3 weeks) with sepsis: 1620 pg/mL; in nonseptic neonates: 42 pg/mL (Martin et al, 2001).
¥ serum levels in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica: 10.0 ± 1.6 pg/mL and 2.1 ± 0.1 pg/mL in normal subjects (Straub et al, 2000)
¥ serum concentrations in normal controls: 0.84 ± 0.08 ng/L; in patients with bacterial pneumonia in acute stage: 465.94 ± 290.30 ng/L; in convalescent stage: 22.04 ± 15.08 ng/L; in patients with respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia: 7.65 ± 2.58 ng/L(Wang et al, 1999)
¥ average serum levels in controls: 2.55 pg/mL; average levels in patients with nonalcoholic fattiy liver: 4.29 pg/mL (…zbek et al, 2003)
¥ mean serum levels in controls (with normal parathyroid function) 1.1 ± 0.1 pg/mL; mean serum levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: 18.6 ± 2.1 pg/mL (Grey et al, 1996)
¥ serum concentrations in normally menstruating women: 4.34 ± 0.99 pg/mL; in pre-ovulatory serum of controls: 4.57 ± 1.1 pg/mL; in pre-ovulatory serum of women with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: 9 ± 0.94 pg/mL) and controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in the course of in vitro fertilization: 7.3 ± 0.97 pg/mL (Loret de Mola et al, 1996)
¥ median IL6 levels in Graves' disease before propylthiouracil treatment: 24 pg/mL, after restoration of euthyroidism: 3 pg/mL; in toxic multinodular goiter patients before propylthiouracil treatment: 26.5 pg/mL, after restoration of euthyroidism: 10 pg/mL (Celik et al, 1995)
¥ serum levels in healthy controls: 12.3 ± 0.8 pg/mL; in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: 94.0 ± 12.1 pg/mL; in patients with suppressed disease: 13.2 ± 0.8 pg/mL (Al-Awadhi et al, 1999)
¥ serum levels in healthy blood donors: 0.39 (0.07-0.99) pg/mL; 61 (26-92) pg/mL in patients with crystal-induced arthritis; 6.9 (2.3-11.2) pg/mL in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; 16 (6-44) pg/mL in patients with reactive arthritis; 5.1 (1.9-7.4) pg/mL in patients with osteoarthritis (Bas et al, 2004)
¥ median maternal serum levels after vaginal delivery: 11.4 ± 1.85 pg/mL; median maternal serum levels after Caesarian delivery: 2.96 ± 1.28 pg/mL; median umbilical cord serum levels after vaginal delivery: 7.7 ± 3.8 pg/mL; median umbilical cord serum levels after Caesarian delivery: 3.5 ± 1.8 pg/mL; (Malamitsi-Puchner et al, 2005)
¥ serum levels in healthy controls: 0.4 ± 0.1 pg/mL; serum levels in hemodialysis patients: 7.0 ± 1.6 pg/mL (Steddon et al, 2004)
¥ plasma levels in normal controls: 1.2 ± 0.6 pg/mL; in patients with acute ischemic syndrome: 10.8 ± 1.8 pg/mL; in patients with stable angina: 1.8 ± 0.8 pg/mL (Mazzone et al, 1999)
¥ serum levels in patients with type 2 diabetes and normal albuminuria: 1.4 ± 0.3 pg/mL; in patients with microalbuminuria: 2.4 ± 0.6 pg/mL; in patients with proteinuria: 4.4 ± 0.8 pg/mL (Shikano et al, 2000)
¥ serum concentration in women with psychological symptoms: 2.71 ± 047 pg/mL; in women without psychological symptoms: 0.98 ± 0.18 pg/mL (Yasui et al, 2007)
¥ mean plasma levels [pg/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 6 (7.6); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 116 (101); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 563 (405); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 16 (7.0); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 378 (236); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 7.2 (5.9); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 29 (13); with diabetes: 22 (38) (de Jager et al, 2007)
¥ serum levels in untreated patients with Graves' disease versus controls: 3.0 vs. 5.0 pg/mL (Pedro et al, 2011)
¥ mean serum levels in healthy controls: 1.9 ± 0.4 ng/mL; in active Familial mediterranean fever (FMF) patients: 4.7 ± 1.1 ng/mL; in inactive Familial mediterranean fever (FMF) patients: 2.9 ± 1.3 ng/mL (Keskin et al, 2010)
¥ median serum levels in untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: 2.2 pg/mL (range 0.8 - 66.7); median levels in patients treated with cladribine (2-CdA): 2.25 pg/mL (range 0 - 34.4); median levels in normal control group: 6.3 pg/mL (range 0.5 - 14.6) (Robak et al, 1999)
¥ mean serum concentration in 117 of 121 patients with multiple myeloma: 16.06 pg/mL; in 28 healthy controls: 4.49 pg/mL (Urbańska-Ryś H et al, 2000)
¥ serum concentration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: 41.76 ± 20.28 pg/mL (range: 18.0-109.1 pg/mL); in healthy controls: 6.56 ± 5.33 pg/mL (range: 0-16.55 pg/mL) (Chung et al, 2011)
¥ serum levels in patients with GravesÕ disease 7.11 ± 0.88 ng/L; in patients with toxic nodular goiter 7.30 ± 0.77 ng/L: in healthy controls: IL-6, 1.1 ± 0.3 ng/L; after treatment levels are indistinguishable from those in control subjects. (Siddiqi et al, 1999)
¥ serum levels in patients with periprosthetic osteolysis having received a cementless hip prosthesis: 2.86 ± 1.95 pg/mL; serum level in patients without osteolysis: 4.58 ± 4.02 pg/mL; serum levels in normal controls: 3.88 ± 2.72 pg/mL (Fiorito et al, 2003)
¥ serum levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and high plasma PTHrP levels: 27.9 ± 7.3 pg/mL; serum levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and low plasma PTHrP levels: 8.3 ± 2.9 pg/mL; serum levels in normal controls: < 4.62 pg/mL (Takahashi et al, 2003)
¥ serum levels in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with diffuse skin fibrosis with more severe internal organ involvement: 34.1 ± 3.4 pg/mL; serum levels in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with limited cutaneous involvement: 10.9 ± 15.3 pg/mL; levels in normal controls: 2.8 ± 3.2 pg/mL (Scala et al, 2004)
¥ serum levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: 16.99 ± 33.93 pg/mL; in healthy controls: 25.27 ± 21.29 pg/mL (Chen H et al, 2012)
¥ plasma levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: 22.1 ± 27.8 [19.0 ± 18.2] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 19.5 ± 32.4 [11.4 ± 19.7] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 12.01 ± 8.75 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 21.46 ± 4.34 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 29396 ± 17.02 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL6 receptors, soluble

¥ mean serum levels in controls (with normal parathyroid function): 25.1 ± 1.0 ng/mL; mean serum levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: 41.7 ± 1.2 ng/ mL (Grey et al, 1996)
¥ serum levels in normal controls: 14-40 ng/mL (median 28 ng/mL); in patients with multiple myeloma: 10-200 ng/mL (median 38 ng/mL) (Kyrtsonis et al, 1996)
¥ median serum levels in untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: 61.8 ng/mL (range 33.8 - 101.67); median levels in patients treated with cladribine (2-CdA): 50.1 ng/mL (range 34.7 - 103.8); median levels in normal control group: 6.3 ng/mL (range 0.5 - 14.6) (Robak et al, 1999)
¥ mean serum concentration in all 121 patients with multiple myeloma: 66.00 ng/mL; in all 28 controls: 39.57 ng/mL (Urbańska-Ryś H et al, 2000)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL7 (Interleukin-7, B-cell precursor growth-promoting activity, Lpo-1, lymphopoietin-1, LP-1, PBGF, Pre-B-cell growth factor, serum factor from patients with ulcerative colitis, Thymocyte growth factor)

¥ levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: 3.9 ± 3.3 [3.4 ± 3.2] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 7.38 ± 17.6 [2.41 ± 0.75] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 5.15 ± 7.56 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 0.88 ± 1.11 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 3.36 ± 5.79 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)
¥ median serum level in patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma: 32.49 pg/mL; in patients with benign tumors: 7.59 pg/mL; in healthy women: 10.64 pg/mL; median peritoneal fluid level in patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma: 17.39 pg/mL; median peritoneal fluid level in patients with benign tumors: 14.09 pg/mL (Xie et al, 2004)
¥ serum levels in healthy women: 0.04 ± 0.11 pg/mL; in serum of women with breast cancer: 0.02 ± 0.10 pg/mL (Bordbar et al, 2012)
¥ serum levels in HIV-1-infected children: 16.6 ± 8.7 pg/mL: in uninfected controls: 9.5 ± 2.4 pg/mL; baseline levels in HIV-1-infected children with subsequent immunologic failure: 15.1 ± 8.8 pg/mL; baseline levels in HIV-1-infected children without subsequent immunologic failure: 17.5 ± 8.7 pg/mL; levels after 12 weeks of highly active antiretroviral therapy in children with immunologic failure: 21.6 ± 13.5 pg/mL; levels after 12 weeks of highly active antiretroviral therapy in children without immunologic failure: 8.2 ± 3.8 pg/mL (Chiappini et al, 2003)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL8 (interleukin-8, SCYB8, 3-10C, 9E3, ANAP, anionic neutrophil-activating peptide, Chemotaxin, CEF-4, CT/IL8, CXCL8, EDNAP, endothelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide, EMF-1, embryo fibroblast protein 1, Emoctakin, ENAP, Endothelial cell neutrophil-activating peptide, FDNAP, Fibroblast-derived neutrophil-activating peptide, FINAP, fibroblast-derived neutrophil-activating protein, GCF, granulocyte chemotactic factor, GCP, granulocyte chemotactic peptide, LAI, leukocyte adhesion inhibitor, LCF, lymphocyte chemotactic factors,
LDNAP, leukocyte-derived neutrophil-activating peptide, leukocyte inhibitory factor, LUCT, lung carcinoma-derived chemotaxin, LYNAP, lymphocyte-derived neutrophil-activating peptide, MDNAP, monocyte-derived neutrophil-activating peptide, MDNCF, monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor, MOC, monocyte-derived chemotaxin, MONAP, monocyte-derived neutrophil-activating peptide, NAF, neutrophil-activating factor, NAP-1, neutrophil-activating protein-1, NCF, neutrophil chemotactic factor, NCP, neutrophil chemotactic protein, PLF, psoriatic leukotactic factor, TCF, T-cell chemotactic factor, TSG-1, Tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene sequence-1)

¥ serum levels of > 40 pg/mL predict extopic pregnancy with a sensitivity of 82.4 %, a specificity of 81.8 %, and positive and negative predictive values of 58.3 % and 93.8 % (Soriano et al, 2003)
¥ median serum levels in newborn infants (n = 32; gestational age 39 ± 3 weeks) with sepsis: 331 pg/mL; in nonseptic neonates: 63 pg/mL (Martin et al, 2001)
¥ average serum levels in controls: 9.51 pg/mL; average levels in patients with nonalcoholic fattiy liver: 43.68 pg/mL (…zbek et al, 2003)
¥ median urinary levels in healthy subjects: 6 pg/mL; in subjects with active transitional cell carcinoma: 64 pg/mL; in subjects with prostate cancer: 0.5 pg/mL; in subjects with a history of successfully treated transitional cell carcinoma: 5.0 pg/mL (Sheryka et al, 2003).
¥ Urine levels in normal subjects: 16 pg/mL; in patients with urinary tract infections: 1,078.0 ± 181.5 pg/mL (Ko et al, 1993)
¥ in ascitic fluids from patients with ovarian carcinoma: 2.0 ng/mL; in nonovarian carcinoma patients: 0.7 ng/mL (Schutyser et al, 2002)
¥ plasma levels in hyperhomocysteinemic subjects: <10 ( <10-36) pg/mL; in normal controls: <10 ( <10-13) pg/mL (Holven et al, 2002)
¥ serum concentration in women with psychological symptoms: 33.4 ± 8.17 pg/mL; in women without psychological symptoms: 7.87 ± 1.64 pg/mL (Yasui et al, 2007)
¥ median serum levels in preoperative serum of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: 17.6 pg/mL; in healthy subjects: 1.0 pg/mL (Ren et al, 2003)

¥ mean concentration in peritoneal fluid obtained from control patients: 4.8 ± 0.5 pg/mL; from patients with minimal-mild endometriosis: 27.5 ± 2.6 pg/mL; from patients with moderate-severe endometriosis: 530.2 ± 65.1 pg/mL (Arici et al, 1996)
¥ plasma baseline levels in patients with Crohn's disease: 9.3 (6.2-12.3) pg/mL; in patients after 13 weeks of daily treatment with 80 mg atorvastatin: 7.0 (4.3-9.7) pg/mL (Grip and Janciauskiene, 2009)
¥ median value in plasma from non-malignant patients: 22.5 pg/mL (range: 0 - 69.9 pg/mL); in patients with gastric carcinoma: 48.9 pg/mL (range: 0 - 396.3 pg/mL) (Rajkumar et al, 2010)
¥ in serum from pregnant women (frozen samples): median: 9.3 pg/mL (interquartile range: 0-22.1 pg/mL); in term fresh samples: median: 1.1 pg/mL (interquartile range: 0-1.5 pg/mL); in early fresh samples: median: 2.5 pg/mL (interquartile range: 1.9-3.9 pg/mL) (Whitcomb et al, 2007)
¥ mean plasma levels [pg/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 0.2 (0.1); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 284 (236); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 287 (249); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 23 (15); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 71 (44); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 0.1 (0.5); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 2.4 (1.9); with diabetes: 104 (36) (de Jager et al, 2007)
¥ mean mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: 1,820 ± 270 pg/mL; mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from age-matched female healthy volunteers: 2,630 ± 360 pg/mL (Pacheco-Rodriguez et al, 2009)
¥ serum levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and high plasma PTHrP levels: 26.7 ± 7.0 pg/mL; serum levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and low plasma PTHrP levels: 13.4 ± 1.8 pg/mL; serum levels in normal controls: <10 pg/mL (Takahashi et al, 2003)
¥ serum levels in untreated patients with GravesÕ disease; 10.3 ± 1.23 ng/L in untreated with toxic nodular goiter 9.81 ± 1.27 ng/L: in healthy controls: 3.2 ± 0.8 ng/L; after treatment levels are indistinguishable from those in control subjects. (Siddiqi et al, 1999)
¥ plasma levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: 14.2 ± 17.3 [48.3 ± 85.8] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 19.0 ± 23.2 [18.2 ± 18.9] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 61.81 ± 114.13 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 85.51 ± 185.7 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 60.52 ± 91.43 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL9 (Interleukin-9, MCGF, mast cell growth factor, MEA, mast cell growth enhancing activity, Megakaryoblast growth factor, P40, TCGF-3, T-cell growth factor-3)

¥ serum levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: 4.4 pg/mL; in healthy controls: 3.47 ± 0.64 pg/mL (Chen H et al, 2012)
¥ serum levels in patients with systemic sclerosis: 84.6 ± 76.0 pg/mL; in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: 50.7 ± 52.0 pg/mL; in patients with dermatomyositis: 50.6 ± 55.8 pg/mL; in patients with atopic dermatitis: 41.8 ± 38.8 pg/mL; in healthy individuals: 40.4 ± 41.7 pg/mL (Yanaba et al, 2011)
¥ plasma levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: 367 ± 653 [141 ± 207] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 191 ± 243 [351 ± 693] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 3.65 ± 6.71 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 73.3 ± 118.15 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 35.11 ± 40.79 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL10 (interleukin-10, B-TCGF, B-cell derived T-cell growth factor, CSIF, cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor, TGIF, T-cell growth inhibitory factor)

¥ serum levels (geometric mean concentrations in pg/mL) in patients with malaria (Lyke et al, 2004). Severe cases versus healthy controls: 1,099.3 versus 14.1; P = <0.001; severe malaria cases versus uncomplicated malaria controls: 1,099.3 versus 133.9; P = <0.001; patients with cerebral malaria compared to severe malaria cases without cerebral manifestations: 1,405.6 versus 868.6; P = 0.006; with severe anemia compared to severe malaria cases with hemoglobin at >5 g/dl: 391.1 versus 1,160.9; P = 0.002.
¥ serum levels of IL10 in patients with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura according to platelet counts (pltc): 0.6 ± 0.1 pg/mL in patients with <50 x 10(9)/l; 1.8 ± 0.1 pg/mL in patients with 50-150 x 10(9)/l; 1.4 ± 0.1 pg/mL in healthy volunteers (Andersson et al, 2000)
¥ serum levels in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: 17.7 ± 4.4 pg/mL; levels in patients with metastatic cancer: 21.0 ± 4.2 pg/mL; levels in patients with undisseminated cancer: 14.3 ± 1.2 pg/mL; levels in healthy controls: 9.2 ± 1.5 pg/mL (De Vita et al, 2000)
¥ serum concentration in women with psychological symptoms: 0.74 ± 0.26 pg/mL; in women without psychological symptoms; 0.07 ± 0.04 pg/mL (Yasui et al, 2007)
¥ mean plasma levels [pg/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 0.3 (0.3); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 1.1 (1.0); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 6.2 (2.2); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 0.7 (0.4); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 50 (48); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 0.5 (0.4); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 3.7 (2.4); with diabetes: 1.2 (1.5) (de Jager et al, 2007)
¥ mean serum concentration in 117 of 121 patients with multiple myeloma: 7.09 pg/mL; in 28 healthy controls: 2.1 pg/mL (Urbańska-Ryś H et al, 2000)
¥ serum levels in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with diffuse skin fibrosis with more severe internal organ involvement: 31.9 ± 40.7 pg/mL; serum levels in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with limited cutaneous involvement: 28.4 ± 5.4 pg/mL; levels in normal controls: 29.2 ± 8.2 pg/mL (Scala et al, 2004)
¥ serum levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: 2.68 ± 2.23 pg/mL; in healthy controls: 3.08 ± 1.91 pg/mL (Chen H et al, 2012)
¥ plasma levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: 22.2 ± 22.5 [47.9 ± 55.9] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 40.6 ± 115 [18.4 ± 23.9] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 3.55 ± 2.3 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 4.25 ± 0.35 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 3.38 ± 2.52 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL11 (Interleukin-11, AGIF, adipogenesis inhibitory factor, HPAEC survival factor, human pulmonary artery endothelial cell-derived survival factor, Megakaryocyte colony stimulating factor, Plasmacytoma stimulatory activity, Oprelvekin, Neumega)

¥ IL11 mean serum concentration in 26 of 121 patients with multiple myeloma: 1.2 pg/mL; in 3 of 28 healthy controls: 0.6 pg/mL (Urbańska-Ryś H et al, 2000)
¥ serum concentration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: 378.32 ± 230.31 pg/mL (range: 45-900 pg/mL); in healthy controls: 102.43 ± 101.72 pg/mL (range: 0-375 pg/mL) (Chung et al, 2011)
¥ levels in cerebral spinal fluid of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: 123.9 ± 107 pg/mL; levels in plasma of same patients: 25.5 ± 18.0 pg/mL); plasma levels in the nonsurvival group: 41.2 ± 18.9 pg/mL; plasma levels in the survival group: 22.2 ± 15.2 pg/mL) on the second day of hemorrhage onset (Fang et al, 2005)
¥ serum levels in children with acquired severe aplastic anemia: low or normal levels of IL-11 (<85 pg/mL) in 10 of 11 patients; 409 pg/mL (normal range 15-200 pg/mL) in one patient (Cockrell et al, 2004)
¥ serum levels in patients with periprosthetic osteolysis having received a cementless hip prosthesis: 0.0 pg/mL; serum level in patients without osteolysis: 1.22 ± 2.57 pg/mL ; serum levels in normal controls: 18.69 ± 10.55 pg/mL (Fiorito et al, 2003)
¥ IL11 serum levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and high plasma PTHrP levels: < 31.3 pg/mL; serum levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and low plasma PTHrP levels: < 31.3 pg/mL; serum levels in normal controls: < 31.3 pg/mL (Takahashi et al, 2003)
¥ plasma levels in healthy term neonates and 27 of 31 table preterm neonates: <10 pg/mL; levels in 3 stable preterm neonates with chorioamnionitis: mean ± SD, 11.3 ± 0.4 pg/mL; median, 11.6 pg/mL; levels in 25 of 58 neonates with unconfirmed sepsis or necrotizing enterocolitis: undetectable levels; levels in 14 of 33 with proven sepsis or necrotizing enterocolitis: median, 14.9 pg/mL; range, 11.2-92.2 pg/mL (McCloy et al, 2002)
¥ serum levels in healthy whole-blood and platelet donors prior to donation: below detection limit in ³ 90 % of cases (< 31.2 pg/mL) (Tacke et al, 1999)
¥ serum levels: undetectable in patients with GravesÕ disease, toxic nodular goiter, and healthy controls (lower limit of detection: 7 ng/L (Siddiqi et al, 1999)
¥ serum levels in patients undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: below detection levels (31.3 pg/mL) at various times after transplantation (Ishida et al, 1996)
¥ serum levels in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, spondylarthropathy and others): below detection limit (30pg/mL); serum levels in healthy controls: below detection limit (30pg/mL) (Gabay et al, 1996)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL12 (IL12A, IL12B, IL12-p35, IL12-p40, IL12-p70, Interleukin-12, Interleukin-12A, Interleukin-12B, CLMF, cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor, NKSF, natural killer cell stimulatory factor, NKSF1, natural killer cell stimulatory factor-1, NKSF2, natural killer cell stimulatory factor-2, TcMF, CTL maturation factor, TSF, T-cell stimulating factor)

¥ IL12-p70 serum levels (geometric mean concentrations in pg/mL) in patients with malaria (Lyke et al, 2004). Severe cases versus healthy controls: 48.9 versus 31.3.
¥ IL12-p40 serum levels in patients with Whipple's disease: 0.18 ± 0.05 ng/mL; in controls: 3.19 ± 0.39 ng/mL (Kalt et al, 2006)
¥ mean plasma levels [pg/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 7.5 (2.4); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 6.6 (4.1); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 19 (4.2); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 15 (12); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 20 (9.1); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 4.3 (3.1); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 49 (22); with diabetes: 16 (4.5) (de Jager et al, 2007)
¥ serum IL12-p40 levels in psoriasis patients: 121 ± 12 pg/mL; in healthy controls 88 ± 10pgmL (Shibata et al, 2010)
¥ serum levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and high plasma PTHrP levels: 1.9 ± 0.6 pg/mL; serum levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and low plasma PTHrP levels: 1.3 ± 0.2 pg/mL; serum levels in normal controls: <3.1 pg/mL (Takahashi et al, 2003)
¥ plasma levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: 24.1 ± 46.1 [17.0 ± 67.1] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 24.2 ± 83.3 [6.48 ± 14.7] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 3.51 ± 1.86 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 4.87 ± 2.55 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 2.75 ± 1.24 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2012


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL13 (Interleukin-13, NC30, P600)

¥ serum levels in normal patients around 500 pg/mL; in asthma patients with high serum levels of IL19: around 6000 pg/mL and up to 10000 pg/mL (Liao et al, 2004)
¥ plasma levels in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome: 1282 pg/mL; in normal controls: 713 pg/mL. In patients with a diagnosis of sepsis: 2080 pg/mL; in patients with non-infectious causes of systemic inflammatory response syndrome: 515 pg/mL (Socha et al, 2006)
¥ serum levels in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus: 92.69 ± 9.87 pg/Ml; in patients with inactive systemic lupus erythematosus: 54.22 ± 9.31 pg/mL; in normal controls: 35.20 ± 12.70 pg/mL (Xu and Chen, 2005)
¥ mean plasma levels [pg/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 1.9 (1.6); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 3.4 (3.1); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 17 (7.4); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 1.3 (1.0); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 48 (30); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 0.3 (0.2); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 3.6 (7.4); with diabetes: 0.9 (2.1) (de Jager et al, 2007)
¥ serum levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: 12.32 pg/mL; in healthy controls: 19.79 ± 4.86 pg/mL (Chen H et al, 2012)
¥ plasma levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: 3.1 ± 6.0 [1.0 ± 1.9] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 5.75 ± 22.6 [0.79 ± 1.34] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 1.43 ± 0 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 1.43 ± 0 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 1.45 ± 0.07 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL15 (Interleukin-15, IL-T, Interleukin T)

¥ levels in the peritoneal effluent of patients undergoing continuous peritoneal dialysis treatment. In patients suffering from peritonitis: 35.0 ± 6.0 pg/mL; in non-infected patients: 16.2 ± 4.0 pg/mL (Hausmann et al, 2000)
¥ mean plasma levels [pg/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 0.0 (0.0); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 0.0 (0.0); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 0.5 (0.3); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 0.2 (0.2); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 2.2 (2.2); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 0.2 (0.1); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 5.5 (1.5); with diabetes: 0.3 (0.6) (de Jager et al, 2007)
median serum levels in healthy controls: 0.83 [interquartile range: 0 - 8.68] pg/mL; no significant differences between genders [median level in males: 1.99 (interquartile range: 0 - 8.68) pg/mL; in females: 0.50 (0 - 8.25) pg/mL.
¥ Serum levels do not correlate with age, do not display a clear circadian rhythm in healthy donors, with the median values close to zero at each time tested. 30 % of patients with early arthritis have serum IL15 values > 20 pg/mL. Levels do not correlate with disease duration or fluctuate with changes in disease activity.
¥ plasma levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: 5.7 ± 8.6 [3.5 ± 5.4] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 3.29 ± 10.9 [1.22 ± 3.19] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 14.78 ± 11.22 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 20.27 ± 14.21 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 14.29 ± 9.52 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL16 (Interleukin-16, Lymphocyte chemoattractant factor, LCF)

¥ serum levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis at disease onset [median (25th-75th percentile) 45.2 (37.7-82.4) pg/mL]; in controls: [30.4 (24.4-37.0) pg/mL]; in patients with undifferentiated arthritis [29.0 (21.5-52.4) pg/mL] (Lard et al, 2004)
¥ serum levels in normal pregnant controls: 163 ± pg/mL; in women with severe preeclampsia: 515 ± 58 pg/mL; women with mild preeclampsia: 287 ± 46 pg/mL (Gu et al, 2008)
¥
serum levels in healthy individuals: median 62.8 pg/mL, minimum 1.7 pg/mL, maximum 540.1 pg/mL; in patients with psoriasis: median 69.45 pg/mL, minimum 3.1 pg/mL, maximum 277.9 pg/mL; in serum of patients with atopic dermatitis: median 206.8 pg/mL, minimum 1.4 pg/mL, maximum 839.4 pg/mL (Nagy et al, 2011)
¥ mean serum levels in patients with bullous pemphigoid: 680 ± 433 pg/mL; in healthy controls: 287 ± 72 pg/mL; in blister fluids of patients with bullous pemphigoid: 3144 ± 627 pg/mL; in blister fluids of normal controls: 295 ± 13 pg/mL (Frezzolini et al, 2004)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: June 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL17 (Interleukin-17, IL17A, interleukin-17A)

¥ mean plasma levels [pg/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 0.3 (0.2); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 0.0 (0.1); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 425 (241); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 0.0 (0.0); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 100 (94); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 1.3 (1.0); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 0.0 (0.1); with diabetes: 0.3 (4.7) (de Jager et al, 2007)
¥ mean serum levels in patients with discoid chronic lupus erythematosus: 34.92 pg/mL ± 17.7; mean serum levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus 34 pg/mL ± 12.33; mean serum levels in patients with subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus: 13.4 pg/mL ± 12; mean serum levels in healthy controls: 1.1 pg/mL ± 0.5 (Bălănescu et al, 2010)
¥ serum levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: 3.37 ± 2.0 pg/mL; in healthy controls: 3.59 ± 0.33 pg/mL (Chen H et al, 2012)
¥ plasma levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: 27.1 ± 62.3 [1.0 ± 4.2] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 19.0 ± 33.8 [6.23 ± 15.5] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 1.42 ± 0 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 4.99 ± 4.99 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 1.42 ± 0 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL17F
(interleukin-17F, ML-1)

¥ mean serum levels in patients with subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus: 510 pg/mL ± 449.65; mean serum levels in patients with discoid chronic lupus erythematosus: 1114.8 pg/mL ± 748; mean serum levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: 1572 pg/mL ± 728; mean serum levels in healthy controls: 12.5 pg/mL ± 11.3 (Bălănescu et al, 2010)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: June 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL18 (interleukin-18, IGIF, IFN-gamma inducing factor, IL1-gamma, IL1F4, IL1 family member 4)

¥ serum levels are 278.0 ± 11.9 pg/mL in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with various degrees of nephropathy and 172.8 ± 7.7 pg/mL in healthy volunteers. Levels in diabetic patients with urinary albumin excretion are highest in patients with microalbuminuria (<30 micro g/mg creatinine, 252.7 ± 16.4 pg/mL; 30 to >300 micro g/mg creatinine, 352.7 ± 35.2 pg/mL; > > 300 micro g/mg creatinine, 350.0 ± 16.0 pg/mL) (Morikawa et al, 2003)
¥ serum levels in Graves' ophthalmopathy patients are 340 ± 109 pg/mL, 308 ± 89 pg/mL in euthyroid Graves' disease patients (without ophthalmopathy), and 238 ± 88 pg/mL age and sex-matched healthy volunteers (Mysliwiec et al, 2003).
¥ plasma concentration in healthy volunteers: 28 ± 11 pg/mL; in patients with congestive heart failure: 51 ± 21 pg/mL (Seta et al, 2000)
¥
plasma concentrations in overweight patients (body-mass index (BMI) above the 90th age-specific percentile): 161.6 ± 40.7 pg/mL; in patients with normal weight: 134.7 ± 43.4 pg/mlL (Jung et al, 2010)
¥ median serum concentration (upper/lower quartile) in patients below 10 years old with atopic dermatitis: 64.8 pg/mL (54.1 pg/mL / 73.1 pg/mL); in normal controls for this group: 94.7 pg/mL (80.6 pg/mL / 124.9 pg/mL); median serum concentration (upper/lower quartile) in patients over 10 years old with atopic dermatitis: 63.3 pg/mL (56.9 pg/mL / 83.7 pg/mL); in normal controls for this group: 77.2 pg/mL (60.4 pg/mL / 96.3 pg/mL) (Narbutt et al, 2009)
¥ mean plasma levels [pg/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 133 (29); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 153 (51); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 172 (24); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 205 (268); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 194 (60); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 770 (246); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 5622 (1348); with diabetes: 108 (71) (de Jager et al, 2007)
¥ IL18 serum levels in healthy donors: 227.38 ± 92.76 pg/mL; in patients with psoriasis: 385.94 ± 193.89 pg/mL (Gangemi et al, 2003)
¥ serum levels in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with diffuse skin fibrosis with more severe internal organ involvement: 243.4 ± 344.2 pg/mL; serum levels in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with limited cutaneous involvement: 185.7 ± 49.6 pg/mL; levels in normal controls: 179.7 ± 86.05 pg/mL (Scala et al, 2004)

¥ IL18 serum level in healthy controls: 158 ± 45 ng/L; in asthma patients: 300 ± 181 ng/L, and reduced to 183 ± 83 ng/L after systemic glucocorticoid treatment and local aerosol inhalation (Yang DX et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL19 (interleukin-19, IL10C, MDA1, ZMDA1, melanoma differentiation antigen-1, melanoma differentiation associated protein-like protein)

¥ serum levels in normal adults: 240 pg/mL (range approx. 190-225 pg/mL); in normal children: 280 pg/mL (range approx. 210-340pg/mL); in children with asthma: 590 pg/mL (range approx. 450-750 pg/mL (Liao et al, 2004)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: August 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL21 (Interleukin-21)

¥ serum levels in healthy controls: 466 ± 90 ng/L; serum levels in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome: 1051 ± 335 ng/L (Yuan SL et al, 2007)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: January 2010


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL22 (Interleukin-22, IL-TIF, IL10-related T-cell derived inducible factor)

¥ serum levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: 464.51 ± 80.62 pg/mL; in healthy controls: 536.16 ± 114.26 pg/mL (Chen H et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL27 (interleukin-27, EBI-3, EBV induced gene-3, IL27A, IL27-alpha, interleukin-27-alpha, IL27B; IL27-beta, interleukin-27-beta, p28, IL27p28, IL30, interleukin-30)

¥ levels in plasma of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, or healthy volunteers are equivalent and are at most 1ng/mL levels in synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients: mean 0.13ng/mL (range 0.017-0.37 ng/mL); levels in synovial fluid of osteoarthritis patients: mean 0.003 ng/mL (range 0-0.033 ng/mL (Tanida et al, 2011)

¥ levels serum levels in psoriatic patients: 452 ± 254 pg/mL; in healthy controls: 318 ± 239 pg/mL (Shibata et al, 2010)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: June 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL31 (Interleukin-31)

¥ median serum levels in patients with allergic asthmatic patients: 50.15 ng/mL; in normal controls: 10.01 pg/mL (Lei et al, 2008)
¥ serum levels in healthy controls: median 220 (mean (SD): 197.3 ± 91.9 pg/mL); in children with atopic dermatitis during flare: median 1600 (mean (SD): 1457.8 ± 770.4 pg/mL); in childfen with atopic dermatitis (quiescence): median: 1040 (mean (SD): 958.7 ± 419.5 pg/mL (Ezzat et al, 2011)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: January 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL32 (interleukin-32, IL32-alpha, IL32-beta, IL32-delta, IL32-epsilon, IL32-gamma, IL32-zeta, NK4, natural killer cell transcript 4, TAIF, tumor necrosis factor alpha-inducing factor, TAIFa, TAIF-alpha, TAIFb, TAIFc, TAIF-beta, TAIFd, TAIF-delta)

¥ serum levels (IL32-alpha) in healthy controls: 248.45 ± 188.42 pg/mL; in myasthenia gravis patients: 460.07 ± 192.30 pg/mL; in myasthenia gravis patients with both anti-AChR binding and blocking antibodies: 521.56 ± 212.92 pg/mL; in myasthenia gravis patients without either antibodies: 339.52 ± 182.78 pg/mL (Na et al, 2011)
¥ average level in sera of 16 stomach cancer patients: 189 pg/mL; average level in healthy control men: 109 pg/mL (Seo et al, 2008)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

IL33 (interleukin-33, NFHEV, nuclear factor from high endothelial venules, C9orf26, chromosome 9 open reading frame 26, DVS27)

¥ serum levels in healthy individuals: 174.9 ± 72.4 pg/mL; in systemic sclerosis patients (261.7 ± 141.9 pg/mL; in patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis: 287.5 ± 146.6 pg/mL; in patients with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis: 221.5 ± 126.5 pg/mL (Yanaba et al, 2011)
¥ median serum levels in women with histologically deeply infiltrating endometriosis: 104.9 pg/mL (range: 8.0-104.9); in women affected by superficial endometriosis: 36.8 pg/mL (range: 7.5-179.0); in endometriosis-free women (controls): 61.3 pg/mL (range, 7.5-526.0) (Santulli et al, 2012)

¥ median peritoneal fluid levels in women with histologically deeply infiltrating endometriosis: 642.0 pg/mL (range: 25.9-3350.6); in controls: 194.2 pg/mL (range: 12.7-1818.2) (Santulli et al, 2012)
¥ serum levels in controls: 1.66(1.66, 6.35) pg/mL; in patients with acute schistosomiasis japonica :517.33 (334.65, 1 056.88) pg/mL (Chen RQ et al, 2012)

¥ IL33 serum level in healthy controls: 143 ± 32 ng/L; in asthma patients: 208 ± 95 ng/L, and reduced to 148 ± 77 ng/L after systemic glucocorticoid treatment and local aerosol inhalation (Yang DX et al, 2012)
¥ serum levels in healthy controls: 68 ± 28 ng/mlL; in patients with chronic hepatitis: 362 ± 66 ng/mL; in patients with persistently normal alanine aminotransferase (PNALT): 297 ± 88 ng/mL; in patients with hyper-alanine aminotransferase: 412 ± 97 ng/mL; in patients with METAVIR fibrosis score of F1-F2: 268 ± 59 ng/mL; in patients with more advanced METAVIR fibrosis score (F3-F4: 431 ± 111 ng/mL (Cacopardo et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

inhibin B (inhibin-alpha, INHA, Inhibin-beta-B, INHBB)

¥ serum levels in prepubertal males born small for gestational age: 87.3 ng/mL; in age-matched controls: 78.2 ng/mL (Boonstra et al, 2008)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: August 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

lactoferrin (LF, Lactotransferrin, LTF)

¥ serum levels in normal subjects: 2-7 ug/mL (Naot et al, 2005)
¥ median plasma level in active rheumatoid arthritis: 800 ng/mL; in normal individuals: 220 ng/mL; in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus: 235 ng/mL (Adeyemi et al, 1990)
¥ mean serum concentration in women with normal ovulatory cycles during the proliferative phase: 0.4013 ± 0.0242 micrograms/mL; in the secretory phase: 0.3468 ± 0.0209 micrograms/mL. Peak lactoferrin levels in induced cycles: 0.7495 ± 0.1148 micrograms/mL; midcycle levels in normal cycles: 0.423 ± 0.0424 micrograms/mL (Kelver et al, 1996)
¥ in tear fluids: 2.73 ± 0.82 mg/mL (Ng et al, 2000)
¥ Levels in tear fluid of control subjects: 2.55 (2.83) mg/mL; in tear fluids from leprosy patients: 5.66 (7.21)mg/mL (Daniel et al, 2004)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

leptin (ob, ob/ob, obese protein, obesity factor)

¥ serum levels in cirrhotic patients: 6.0 (3.6-7.7) g/L; normal controls: 3.4 (2.9-4.3) g/L (Lin et al, 2002)
¥ serum levels in uraemic patients on peritoneal dialysis: [median (interquartile range) 28.7 (13.0-71.9) microg/l]; in uraemic patients on haemodialysis: [9.7 (4.7-31.9) microg/l,]; in conservative management: [5.9 (4.3-38.6) microg/l] (Diez et al, 2005)
¥ normal serum values: 30.4 ± 5.0 ng/mL; in patients with hyperthyroidism: 11.0 ± 1.1 ng/mL; in patients with hypothyroidism: 16.0 ± 3.5 ng/mL (Iglesias et al, 2003)
¥ mean serum concentrations in normal subjects: 5.0 ± 2.8 ng/mL in men (n = 42) and 10.7 ± 7.3 ng/mL in women (n = 73); in acromegalic patients: 2.2 ± 1.8 ng/mL in men (n = 18) and 3.6 ± 2.5 ng/mL in women (n = 18); in growth hormone deficiency patients: 5.1 ± 2.5 ng/mL in men and 11.5 ± 8.1 ng/mL in women (Miyakawa et al, 1998)
¥ serum levels in patients with liver cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma: 6.0 ± 1.1 ng/mL; in patients with liver cirrhosis without hepatocellular carcinoma: 6.1 ± 0.6 ng/mL; in normal controls: 3.8 ± 0.3 ng/mL (Wang and Lin, 2003)
¥ serum concentrations in healthy females: 9.93 ± 6.01; in healthy males: 3.27 ± 2.54 ng/mL (Yannakoulia M et al, 2003)
¥ serum levels in normal controls (children): 6.7 ± 1.2 ng/mL; in children with lymphoma: 5 ± 1.5 ng/mL (Okur et al, 2010)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

leptin receptors (soluble) (OBR, CD295, db, db/db, fatty, fa, fa/fa)

¥ Serum concentrations in healthy females: 27.24 ± 29.06 ng/mL; in healthy males: 50.14 ± 39.74 ng/mL (Yannakoulia M et al, 2003)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

LIF (leukemia inhibitory factor; myeloid leukemia inhibitory factor, ABAE cell growth-inhibitory activity; CDF, cholinergic differentiation factor, CNDF, cholinergic neuronal differentiation factor, D-Factor, differentiation stimulating factor, DIA, differentiation inhibiting activity, DIF, differentiation inducing factor, DRF, Differentiation-retarding factor, ES cell growth factor, ESCGF, embryonic stem cell growth factor, GATS, growth stimulatory activity for TS1 cells, HILDA, human interleukin for Da cells, HSF-2, hepatocyte stimulating factor-2, HSF-3, hepatocyte stimulating factor-3, Lipoprotein lipase inhibitor, M1 differentiation inducing activity, MCGEF, mast cell growth-enhancing factor, MLPLI, melanoma-derived lipoprotein lipase inhibitor, OAF, osteoclast activating factor)

¥ serum levels in patients with inflammatory disease: 0.80 ± 0.10 ng/mL; in non-inflammatory disease: 0.53 ± 0.02 ng/mL; in cancer patients: 0.44 ± 0.06; in septicemia: 0.78 ± 0.14 ng/mL; in pneumonia: 0.80 ± 0.10 ng/mL; in acute bronchitis: 0.88 ± 0.09 ng/mL; in other infections: 1.01 ± 0.17 ng/mL; in systemic lupus erythematosus: 0.79 ± 0.06 ng/mL. In 7 septicemia patients, Gram-negative infection was associated with higher LIF levels (1.06 ± 0.16 ng/mL) than was Gram-positive infection (0.58 ± 0.14 ng/mL) (Ren et al, 1998)
¥ serum concentration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: 57.44 ± 33.82 pg/mL (range: 1.3-120.3 pg/mL); in healthy controls: 10.38 ± 7.46 pg/mL (range: 0-25.8 pg/mL) (Chung et al, 2011)
¥ serum levels in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, spondylarthropathy and others): below detection limit (30pg/mL); serum levels in healthy controls: below detection limit (30pg/mL) (Gabay et al, 1996)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

Lipocalin-2 (LCN2, 24p3, 25 kDa alpha-2-microglobulin-related subunit of MMP-9, Alpha-2-microglobulin related protein, Ex-FABP, extracellular fatty acid-binding protein, HNL, human neutrophil lipocalin, lipocalin 24p3, MSFI, migration stimulating factor inhibitor, NGAL, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, NRL, neu-related lipocalin, Scn, siderocalin, SIP24, superinducible protein 24 kDa, SV40-induced 24P3 protein, Uterocalin)

¥ urine levels in normal patients: 11.6 ± 2 ng/mL; 135 ± 32 ng/mL in patients without contrast-induced nephropathy 2 hrs after contrast administration (Ioversol) (Hirsch et al, 2007)
¥ plasma levels in normal patients: 36 ± 4 ng/mL; 151 ± 34 ng/mL in plasma in patients without contrast-induced nephropathy 2 hrs after contrast administration (Ioversol) (Hirsch et al, 2007)
¥ 50 ± 27 ng/mL in serum of normal patients; 174 ± 52 ng/mL in serum of patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (Bolignano et al, 2007)
¥ 7 ± 6 ng/mL in urine of normal patients; 119 ± 42 ng/mL in urine of patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (Bolignano et al, 2007)
¥ mean serum levels in term healthy newborns: 82.4-81.7 microg/l); mean serum levels in newborns (up to 28 days old) with proven infection: 587.6 microg/l; mean serum levels in newborns (up to 28 days old) with non-proven infection: 217.7 microg/l (Bjšrkqvist et al, 2004)
¥ plasma levels 69 (46-126) microg/l (median and quartiles) in preterm infants, gestational age 27.3 ± 0.3 wk, birthweight 968 ± 40 g, during the first postnatal week (Nupponen et al, 2000)
¥ tracheal aspirate fraction fluid 213 (71-433) microg/l preterm infants, gestational age 27.3 ± 0.3 wk, birthweight 968 ± 40 g, during the first postnatal week. Infants born to mothers with premature rupture of the membranes or clinical chorioamnionitis had significantly higher plasma [73 (58-151) vs 53 (38-108) microg/l; p=0.027], and tracheal aspirate fraction levels [319 (129-540) vs 190 (57-324) microg/l; p = 0.019] than infants whose mothers had intact membranes and who had no suspicion of infection (Nupponen et al, 2000)
¥ plasma level in hypertensive women: 109 microg/l; in normotensive women: 87 microg/l (Elneihoum et al, 1997)
¥ median serum levels in control subjects: 57.7 microg/L; in patients with cystic fibrosis: 200.5 microg/L. Cystic fibrosis patients with acute pulmonary exacerbation have significantly increased serum concentrations (321 versus 97.7 microg/L) (Eichler et al, 1999)
¥ Mean serum levels in healthy subjects: 78.40 micrograms/l (range 37.95-190.87 micrograms/l); in EDTA plasma: 50.65 micrograms/l (range 30.51-105.8 micrograms/l) (Xu et al, 1994)
¥ plasma levels in normal subjects: 72 micrograms/L (range 40-109 micrograms/L); 10-fold increase in patients with severe acute peritonitis; peak level in peritoneal exudates of such patients: about 40 mg/L (Axelsson et al, 1995)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 9.7 ± 81 micrograms/L; in serum: 133 ± 90 micrograms/L; in urine: 8.1 micrograms/L; in synovial fluids of patients with inflammatory rheumatoid arthritis: 1.7 ± 1.4 mg/L (BlŠser et al, 1995)
¥ serum levels in patients infected by viruses: 93.78 ± 45.30 micrograms; in patients with bacterial infections: 404.14 ± 355.02 micrograms/L; plasma levels in patients infected by viruses: 47.81 ± 18.18 micrograms/L; plasma levels in patients infected by bacteria: 145.46 ± 194.32 micrograms/L (Xu et al, 1995)
¥ plasma levels in healthy control children: median < 50 ng/mL; in children six weeks after onset of Kawasaki disease: 163 ng/mL; in children six weeks after onset of Kawasaki disease: 156 ng/mL (Biezeveld et al, 2005)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: January 2008


_____________________________________________________________________________

Lysozyme (EC3.2.1.17, 1,4-beta-N-acetylmuramidase C)

¥ in tear fluids: 2.46 ± 0.44 mg/ml (Ng et al, 2000)

Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: January 2008


_____________________________________________________________________________

M-CSF (macrophage colony stimulating factor, CSF-1, colony stimulating factor-1, CSF-HU, Urinary colony stimulating factor, MGF, macrophage growth factor, MGI-1M, macrophage-granulocyte inducer)

¥ serum levels elevated in pre-transplant haemodialysis patients (611 ± 355 IU/mL versus 168 ± 61 in normal controls, P<0.01). Levels decrease in the first month after successful renal transplantation and stabilize at 257 ± 222 IU/mL (not significantly different from normal controls) (Le Meur et al, 2004).
¥ serum M-CSF concentrations in hemodialysis patients: 3.8 ± 0.2 ng/mL, as compared with controls: 1.5 ± 0.1 ng/mL) (Nitta et al, 2001)
¥ upper level of normal M-CSF was taken as 8 ng/mL (Kohorn et al, 2001)
¥ serum levels in healthy women: 770.4 ± 145.9 U/mL, with upper limit of normal level considered 1056 U/mL. Levels in patients with ovarian cancer: 1425.3 ± 1007.1 U/mL (29/43 patients exceeding the limit of 1056 U/mL) (Menditto et al, 1999)
¥ mean serum levels in healthy control subjects from US (584 ± 237 pg/mL) and Panama (520 ± 229 pg/mL). Levels in patients positive for human papillomavirus: 1166 ± 949 pg/mL); levels in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: 1295 ± 314 pg/mL (Adam et al, 1999)
¥ serum levels in controls: 3.5 ± 1.1 microgram/liter; in patients with endometrial cancer: 4.9 ± 1.8 microgram/liter (Smith et al, 1995)
¥ mean follicular fluid levels in 45 women undergoing oocyte retrieval for IVF: 10.0 ± 1.3 ng/mL as compared to serum levels: 3.6 ± 0.3 ( ± SE) ng/mL (Witt and Pollard, 1997)
¥ normal serum values: 500 ± 33 pg/mL; serum levels in patients with HbH disease (alpha 1/alpha 2 or alpha 2/HbCS): 986 ± 138 pg/mL; serum levels in patients with beta zero-thal/HbE: 1385 ± 133 pg/mL (Wiener et al, 1996)
¥ mean serum levels in women with metastatic breast cancer: 9.7 ng/mL ± 0.8; in patients with primary tumors: 4.2 ± 0.2 (Scholl et al, 1996)
¥ serum levels in normal controls: 0.90 ± 0.09 ng/mL; mean level in synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: 1.38 ± 0.56 ng/mL, serum levels: 1.32 ± 0.50 ng/mL; in patients with osteoarthritis: 0.67 ± 0.13 ng/mL (Kawaji et al, 1995).
¥ mean plasma levels in nonpregnant female controls: 364 ± 69 U/mL; mean plasma levels in pregnant females: 541 ± 164 U/mL. Levels increased by 28 weeks' gestation with no further increases later in pregnancy. Levels in females taking oral contraceptives: 373 ± 66 U/mL. Levels in nonpregnant patients with untreated immune thrombocytopenic purpura: 797 ± 402 U/mL. Levels in pregnant women with immune thrombocytopenic purpura: 929 ± 327 U/mL (Yong et al, 1992)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

metastin (KISS-1, kisspeptin-1, kisspeptin-54, KP-54, kisspeptins, Kp-10; Kisspeptin-10, Kp-13; Kisspeptin-13, Kp-14; Kisspeptin-14)

¥ plasma levels in males: 1.30 ± 0.14 fmol/mL; in females: 1.31 ± 0.37 fmol/mL; in first trimester pregnant females: 1230 ± 346 fmol/mL; in second trimester pregnant females: 4590 ± 555 fmol/mL; in third trimester pregnant females: 9590 ± 1640 fmol/mL; in females 5 days after delivery: 7.63 ± 1.33 fmol/mL (Horikoshi et al, 2003)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

midkine (MK, Mdk, NEGF-2, neurite growth-promoting factor-2, ARAP, Amphiregulin-associated protein, RIHB, retinoic acid-inducible heparin binding protein)

¥ serum level in controls: 0.154 ± 0.076 ng/mL; in 87 % of cancer patients (10 types of carcinomas): > 0.5 ng/mL (Ikematsu et al, 2000)
¥ serum concentrations in normal human subjects: low or undetectable by ELISA; 0.6-8 ng/mL in samples in the majority of cases of hepatocellular carcinomas (Muramatsu et al, 1996)
¥ serum concentrations in patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer: 417 ± 342 pg/mL; in normal controls: 154 ± 76 pg/mL. High serum levels (> /= 300 pg/mL) are associated with tumor size, immunoreactivity and poor survival (Shimada et al, 2003)
¥ serum levels in patients with primary superficial esophageal squamous cell cancer: 388 ± 411 pg/mL; in patients with benign esophageal disease: 183 ± 73 pg/mL; in healthy controls: 154 ± 76 pg/mL (Shimada et al, 2003)
¥ median (25th and 75th percentiles) in patients with gastric cancer: 192 (123 and 314) pg/mL; in controls: 170 (81 and 273) pg/mL; in patients with early cancer: 182 (105 and 301) pg/mL; in patients with advanced cancer: 203 (139 and 331) pg/mL; in patients with intestinal type cancers: 185 (121 and 306) pg/mL; in patients with diffuse type cancers: 198 (127 and 323) pg/mL (Obata et al, 2005)
¥ serum values of the patients with Alzheimer's disease: median 560 and interquartile range 500-755 pg/mL/mL. 47.2 % of the Alzheimer's patients, but none of the controls, had abnormally high values of more than 600 pg/mL; serum values in controls: median 500 and interquartile range 385-520 pg/mL (Salama et al, 2005)
¥ serum levels in patients Neurofibromatosis type 1 increase dramatically at puberty from an average of 0.79 ng/mL in patients <18 years to 1.18 ng/mL in patients >18 years old; mean serum concentration in Neurofibromatosis type 1: 1.1ng/mL (median: 1.12 ng/mL); in control group: 0.78 ng/mL (median: 0.738 ng/mL (Mashour et al, 2004)
¥ mean serum levels in drug-naive schizophrenia patients: 0.30 ± 0.10 ng/mL; in controls: 0.40 ± 0.12 ng/mL (Shimizu et al, 2003)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: September 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

MIF (MMIF, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, GIF, glycosylation inhibiting factor, phenylpyruvate tautomerase, PPT, EC5.3.2.1, phenylpyruvate keto-enol isomerase)

¥ serum concentrations in patients with the diffuse form of systemic sclerosis are 10705.6 (9311) pg/mL (mean, SD) as compared with controls (2157.5 (1288.6) pg/mL. MIF levels from patients' fibroblast cultures are 1.74 (0.16) ng/2 x 10(5) cells as compared to control fibroblasts (0.6 (0.2) ng/2 x 10(5) cells) (Selvi et al, 2003)
¥ median serum concentrations 17.6 pg/mL in first trimester, 16.4 pg/mL in second trimester, and 15.1 ng/mL in third trimester during normal pregnancies. During early gestation in women with recurrent miscarriage are 8.1 pg/mL (normal fetal chromosome karyotype), 11.4 pg/mL (fetusses with abnormal karyotype), and 16.4 ng/mL (pregnancies ending in live birth between 32-41 week of gestation) (Yamada et al, 2003)
¥ mean levels of circulating MIF in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: 19.84 ± 11.27 ng/mL; in healthy controls: 4.38 ± 1.34 ng/mL) (Yamada et al, 2002)
¥ median vitreous levels: 11.93 ng/mL (range 4.16-103.85) in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 1.79 ng/mL (undetectable-8.93) in controls (Mitamura et al, 2000)
¥ vitreous levels in proliferative vitreoretinopathy: 51.33 ± 49.21 ng/mL, in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: 19.11 ± 16.13 ng/mL, in controls: 2.98 ± 2.55 ng/mL (Mitamura et al, 1999)
¥ bronchoalveolar lavage fluid levels of asthmatic patients: 797.5 ± 92 pg/mL; in nonatopic normal volunteers: 274 ± 91 pg/mL (Rossi et al, 1998)
¥ urine levels in normal healthy controls: 106 ± 61 pg/micromol creatinine; in patients with acute renal transplant dysfunction: 439 ± 313 pg/micromol creatinine; urine concentrations in patients with cyclosporine nephrotoxicity: 145 ± 119 pg/micromol creatinine (Brown et al, 2001)
¥ plasma levels in controls: 1,337 ± 286 pg/mL; plasma levels in trauma patients: 19,439 ± 2,615 pg/mL (Joshi et al, 2000)
¥ serum levels in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: 25.6 ± 15.3 ng/mL; in patients with liver cirrhosis: 18.9 ± 10.7 ng/mL; in patients with gastrointestinal cancer: 6.8 ± 7.5 ng/mL; in normal controls: 5.6 ± 1.2 ng/mL (Akbar et al, 2001)
¥ mean plasma levels [ng/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 2.3 (0.4); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 7.4 (2.3); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 6.6 (1.1); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 7.6 (1.8); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 30 (10); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 6.2 (6.9); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 15 (3.4); with diabetes: 3.7 (5.6) (de Jager et al, 2007)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

MIS (MŸllerian inhibiting substance, AMH, anti-MŸllerian hormone, MIF, MŸllerian inhibiting factor, MŸllerian inhibiting hormone)

¥ serum levels in female control infants (2-3 months old): 9.16 ± 8.6 pmol/L; in daughters (2-3 months old) of women with polycystic ovary syndrome: 20.4 ± 15.6 pmol/L. Levels in controls during childhood (4 to 7 yr old): 14.8 ± 7.7 pmol/L; childhood (4 to 7 yr old) levels in daughters of woman with polycystic ovary syndrome: 9.61 ± 4.4 pmol/L (Sir-Petermann et al, 2006)
¥ serum levels in prepubertal males born small for gestational age: 75.6 microg/L; in age-matched controls: 63.6 microg/L (Boonstra et al, 2008)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: August 2008


_____________________________________________________________________________

MMP-1 (matrix metalloproteinase-1, collagenase, collagenase-1, CL-1, CLG1, fibroblast collagenase, fibroblast-type collagenase, interstitial collagenase, tissue collagenase, EC3.4.23.7)

¥ levels in patients with periprosthetic osteolysis having received a cementless hip prosthesis: 3.69 ± 1.75 pg/mL; serum level in patients without osteolysis: 4.10 ± 1.44 pg/mL; serum levels in normal controls: 3.31 ± 1.7 pg/mL (Fiorito et al, 2003)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

MMP-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-2, EC3.4.24.24, 70 kDa gelatinase, 72 kDa gelatinase, 72 kDa metalloproteinase, collagenase type 4, collagenase type 4A, 72 kDa type IV collagenase, Gelatinase 72 kDa, Gelatinase A, Type IV collagenase, Type IVA collagenase, neutrophil gelatinase)

¥ serum levels in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (Sapienza et al, 2004). Patients with soft plaques: 1222 (1190-1252) ng/mL; patients with hard plaques: 748 (656-793) ng/mL; p<0.0001.


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

MMP-3 (matrix metalloproteinase-3, stromelysin-1, STMY1, STR1, SL-1, transin, transin-1, collagenase activating protein, procollagenase activator, proteoglycanase)

¥ serum levels in the acute phase of myocardial infarction: at admission: 15.5 ng/mL [10.5-21.8]; at 3 months: (19.5 ng/mL [14.4-24.7]; at 48 hours: 14.7 ng/mL [9.9-23.8]
The -1612 5A/6A polymorphism influences serum concentrations at all time-points:
14.1 ng/mL [10.2-18.8] in 5A/5A; 19.6 ng/mL [15.0-24.4] in 5A/6A; 24.0 ng/mL [20.1-32.3] in 6A/6A genotype at 3 months
Female patients have lower serum concentrations than male patients at all time-points (14.8 ng/mL [9.4-20.8] vs. 19.9 ng/mL [16.0-26.9] at 3 months) (Samnegard et al, 2006).
¥ median value in plasma from non-malignant patients: 10966.2 pg/mL (range: 3891.2 - 38928.9 pg/mL); in patients with gastric carcinoma: 13680.1 pg/mL (range: 1358.7 - 80588.8 pg/mL) (Rajkumar et al, 2010)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: July 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9, EC3.4.24.35, gelatinase B, 92 kDa gelatinase, 92 kDa type IV collagenase, PMNL gelatinase, polymorphonuclear leukocyte gelatinase, gelatinase type IV-B, collagenase type 5, collagenase-5, CL-5)

¥ serum levels in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (Sapienza et al, 2004). Patients with soft plaques: 26 (22-29) ng/mL: patients with hard plaques: 18 (15-21) ng/mL (p<0.0001).


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

Motilin

¥ basal plasma levels in healthy subjects: 63.3 ± 6.0 pmol/liter; in diabetic patients: 111.5 3 ± 14.5 pmol/liter; in patients with cardiac autonomic neuropathy: 130.0 ± 11.9 pmol/liter; in patients without cardiac autonomic neuropathy 74.0 ± 9.4 pmol/liter (Fiorucci et al, 1992)
¥ baseline plasma level: 456 ± 70.2 pg/mL; 264 ± 44.7 pg/mL at 120 min after intramuscular injection of Met-Enkephalin analog FK 33-824 (Sekiya et al, 1986)
¥ postprandial serum/plasma levels in healthy children: 78.0 (49.1-124.0) pg/mL; in children with cystic fibrosis: 148.0 (70.8-309) pg/mL; in children with Crohn's disease: 153.0 (87.6-266) pg/mL (Teufel et al, 1986)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: August 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

M-spondin (SPON2, spondin-2, DIL-1, differentially expressed in lung cells-1, differentially expressed in cancerous and noncancerous lung cells 1, Mindin)

¥ serum levels in healthy patients 0.45 ng/mL (median: 5.19); in prostate cancer patients with PSA ² 10 ng/mL: 16.06 (median 15.06); in cancer patients with PSA > 10 ng/mL: 21.53 (median 27.24) (Qian et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: August 2012


_____________________________________________________________________________

nesfatin (nesfatin-1, Nucleobindin-2, NUCB2, NEFA, ZG4, gastric cancer antigen ZG4, Wa antigen)

¥ mean basal plasma levels in healthy subjects: 0.99 ± 0.23 ng/mL; fasting plasma nesfatin-1 levels significantly lower in type 2 diabetes mellitus (Li QC et al, 2010)

¥ serum levels in controls: 0.16 ± 0.002 ng/mL; in untreated epileptic patients: 25.8 ± 5.84 ng/mL; in epileptic patients under epileptic treatment: 3.3 ± 1.04 ng/mL (Aydin et al, 2009)
¥ saliva levels in controls: saliva: 0.21 ± 0.003 ng/mL; in untreated epileptic patients: 33.5 ± 8.79 ng/mL; in epileptic patients under epileptic treatment: 2.3 ± 1.57 ng/mL (Aydin et al, 2009)
¥
maternal serum levels in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus: 5.5 ± 8.1 ng/mL; in control pregnant women: 8.1 ± 23.9 ng/mL (Aslan et al, 2012)
¥ cord blood levels in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus: 5.4 ± 4.0 ng/mL; in control pregnant women: 6.2 ± 10.3 ng/mL (Aslan et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: November 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

NGF (nerve growth factor)

¥ serum levels in 126 healthy subjects were determined (Lang et al, 2003). Median NGF concentration was 19.68 pg/mL with an interquartile range of 11.06-41.74 pg/mL (i.e., 50 % of NGF levels are in this range). There are no gender differences, but a slight age-related decrease of NGF (r=-0.1326, P=0.1560) was observed. Intraindividual stability of NGF was examined in ten volunteers, where no significant changes of serum NGF concentrations were detected over 4 weeks.
¥ serum concentrations in female patients with microprolactinoma: 58.4 ± 18.7 pg/mL in patients with hyperprolactinemia (70.3 ± 8.4 ng/mL). Controls are prolactin: 8.7 ± 3.2 ng/mL, NGF: 8.4 ± 1.3 pg/mL. Cabergoline therapy decreases NGF levels (12.5 ± 4.9 pg/mL) (Sigala et al, 2004)
¥ serum levels of 61 control persons: 33.1 ± 31.0 pg/mL). Serum levels in 76 schizophrenics who did not consume illegal drugs: 26.3 ± 19.5 pg/mL. Serum levels in chizophrenic patients with regular cannabis intake (> 0.5 g on average per day for at least 2 years): 412.9 ± 288.4 pg/mL (n = 21). Serum levels in schizophrenic patients who consumed cannabis and additional substances: 2336.2 ± 1711.4 pg/mL (n = 12) (Jockers-Scherubl et al, 2004)
¥ Mean serum levels in controls: 42.1pg/mL (S.D. 68.0); mean serum levels in patients with alcohol dependence but without delirium in the past: 401.5pg/mL (S.D. 932.6); mean serum levels in patients with alcohol dependence and former withdrawal delirium: 3292.5pg/mL (Jockers-ScherŸbl et al, 2007)
¥ mean serum levels in patients with persistent amnestic disorder (Korsakoff's syndrome): like controls Jockers-ScherŸbl et al, 2007)
¥ median NGF levels in healthy controls: 20 pg/mL; in patients with AIDS-related Kaposis's sarcoma: 2500 pg/mL; in HIV-infected patients without Kaposis's sarcoma: 40 pg/mL; in patients with classical Kaposis's sarcoma: 550 pg/mL (Pica et al, 1998)
¥ serum levels in control children: 6.5 ± 2.03 pg/mL; in children with acute phase of Kawasaki disease: 1219.54 ± 1660.29 pg/mL; in children with inactive phase of disease (277.08 ± 245.64 pg/mL (Falcini et al, 1996)
¥ serum values in normal controls: 3.8 ± 1.7 pg/mL; in allergic (skin-test- or radioallergosorbent-test-positive) subjects: 49.7 ± 28.8 pg/mL; in allergic patients with asthma (132.1 ± 90.8), rhinoconjunctivitis (17.6 ± 6.1), and urticaria-angioedema (7.6 ± 1.8 pg/mL) (Bonini et al, 1996)
¥ mean plasma levels in patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis: 8224.47 ± 7802.53 pg/mL (median = 121 pg/mL); in controls: 51.68 ± 5.94 pg/mL (median 42.5 pg/mL) (Lambiase et al, 1995)
¥ serum levels in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus: 339.69 ± 25.60 pg/mL; in patients with inactive systemic lupus erythematosus: 300.89 ± 33.51 pg/mL; in normal controls: 111.40 ± 32.54 pg/mL (Xu and Chen, 2005)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: January 2008


_____________________________________________________________________________

Obestatin

¥ median (interquartile range) serum concentrations in infants: 844.87 (805.14) pg/mL; in lactating mothers: 759.105 (855.55) pg/mL; in breast milk: 846.6 (472.07) pg/mL (Savino et al, 2012)
¥ serum levels in kidney transplant recipients: 3.5 [3-4.8]; in healthy subjects: 11 [8.56-28.60] ng/mL; in patients with renal failure: 4.7 [3, 5-6, 1] ng/mL (Lacquaniti et al, 2011)
¥ plasma levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: 37.5 ± 9.2 ng/L; in patients with impaired glucose regulation: 39.2 ± 9.7 ng/L ; in normal controls: 43.8 ± 8.0 ng/L (Qi X et al, 2007)
¥ peripheral blood levels in subjects with Prader-Willi syndrome: 398 ± 102 pg/mL; in normal controls: 325 ± 109 pg/mL; (in 5 young (< or =3 years old) Prader-Willi syndrome subjects: 460 ± 49 pg/mL; in 5 young controls: 369 ± 96 pg/mL) (Butler and Bittel, 2007)
¥ Fasting plasma levels in narcolepsy subjects: 89.6 ± 16 pg/mL; in normal contols: 24.9 ± 3 pg/mL (Huda et al, 2013)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

Olfactomedin 4 (OLM4, OLFM4, GW112, G-CSF-stimulated clone-1, hGC-1, GC-1)

¥ serum levels in presurgical gastric cancer patients: 36.3 ± 3.5 ng/mL); in healthy controls: 16.6 ± 1.6 ng/mL (Oue et al, 2009)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: April 2012


_____________________________________________________________________________

Omentin (omentin-1, Intelectin, ITLN, Intelectin-1, ITLN1, HL-1, Endothelial lectin HL-1, XL-35, LFR)

¥ serum levels in obese subjects before hypocaloric weight loss: 44.9 ± 9.02 ng/mL; after hypocaloric weight loss: 53.41 ± 8.8 ng/mL (Moreno-Navarrete et al, 2010)
¥ serum levels in fetuses (appropriate-for-gestational-age): 11.32 ± 1.88 ng/mL; in fetuses (intrauterine growth-restricted): 10.47 ± 1.30 ng/mL; at postnatal day 1 (appropriate-for-gestational-age): 10.74 ± 1.42 ng/mL; at postnatal day 1 (intrauterine growth-restricted): 10.46 ± 1.54 ng/mL; at postnatal day 4 (appropriate-for-gestational-age): 10.90 ± 2.72 ng/mL; at postnatal day 4 (intrauterine growth-restricted): 11.35 ± 3.92 ng/mL (Briana et al, 2011)
¥ plasma levels in control subjects: 7 ± 128.6 ng/mL; in coronary artery disease patients: 102.8 ± 69.0 ng/mL (Shibata et al, 2011)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: January 2012


_____________________________________________________________________________

Oncostatin M (OSM, OM, Onco M, OnM)

¥ mean plasma levels [pg/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 1.6 (0.4); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 1.9 (1.2); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 328 (231); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 4.4 (3.2); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 18 (12); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 1.8 (0.5); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 2.8 (0.9); with diabetes: 0.1 (0.4) (de Jager et al, 2007)
¥ serum levels in healthy subjects: 0.0 pg/mL; in patients with gingivitis: 0.0 pg/mL; levels in gingival crevicular fluid of healthy subjects: 66.15 ± 28.10 pg/mL; levels in gingival crevicular fluid of subjects with gingivitis: 128.33 ± 22.96 pg/mL; in gingival crevicular fluid of patients with chronic periodontitis: 726.65 ± 283.56 pg/mL; in serum of patients with chronic periodontitis: 65.59 ± 12.37 pg/mL; in gingival crevicular fluid after periodontal therapy: 95.50 ± 38.85; in serum after periodontal therapy: 39.98 ± 16.69 pg mL (Thorat et al, 2010)
¥ mean concentrations in serum of patients with chronic periodontitis: 68.05 pg/mL; in same group following treatment: 39.65 pg/mL; undetectable levels in healthy subjects or in patients with gingivitis (Pradeep et al, 2010)
¥ levels in gingival crevicular fluid of patients with chronic periodontitis: 726.65 ± 283.56 pg/mL; levels in serum of patients with chronic periodontitis: 65.59 ± 12.37 pg/mL; levels in gingival crevicular fluid of patients with chronic periodontitis after the periodontal therapy: 95.50 ± 38.85 pg/mL; levels in serum of patients with chronic periodontitis after the periodontal therapy: 39.98 ± 16.69 pg/mL; levels in gingival crevicular fluid of healthy subjects: 66.15 ± 28.10 pg/mL; levels in gingival crevicular fluid of gingivitis-suffering subjects: 128.33 ± 22.96 pg/mL; levels in serum of gingivitis-suffering subjects: below the detectable limit (approximately equal 0.0 pg/mL (Thorat et al, 2010)
¥ mean serum concentration in 52 of 121 of 121 patients with multiple myeloma: 3.84 pg/mL; in 4 of 28 healthy controls: 0.1 pg/mL (Urbańska-Ryś H et al, 2000)
¥ median serum levels in untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: 1.8 pg/mL (range 0 - 22.5); median levels in patients treated with cladribine (2-CdA): 0.0 pg/mL (range 0 - 12.8); median levels in normal control group: 0.0 pg/mL (range 0 - 1.1) (Robak et al, 1999)
¥ levels in sera from normal donors: generally below the detection limits of the assay (sensitivity of 24 pg/mL routinely obtainable); concentrations > 25 pg/mL found in 17 of 212 serum samples from apparently normal donors (Naemura and Radka, 1993)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

Orexin A (OxA; hypocretin 1, HCRT1)

¥ mean serum levels in maternal blood of women with gestational diabetes mellitus: 1.16 ± 0.37 ng/mL; in normal controls: 1.58 ± 0.59 ng/mL (Yilmaz et al, 2013)
¥ mean serum levels in fetal cord blood (women with gestational diabetes mellitus): 1.35 ± 0.20ng/mL; in fetal cord blood (normal controls): 1.25 ± 0.21 ng/mL (Yilmaz et al, 2013)
¥ plasma levels in girls with anorexia nervosa before realimentation: 56.2 ± 2.4 pg/mL; after realimentation: 47.5 ± 1.4 pg/mL; levels in control group: 47.15 ± 2.6 pg/mL (Bronsky et al, 2011)
¥ plasma levels in postmenopausal women not receiving estrogen-replacement therapy: 705.61 ± 165.62 microg/dL; in postmenopausal women on estrogen-replacement therapy: 233.90 ± 54.26 microg/dL; in control group (women of reproductive age): 243.81 ± 68.88 microg/dL (El-Sedeek et al, 2010)
¥ plasma levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (untreated): (9.4 ± 1.9 pg/mL; in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (treated with continuous positive airway pressure): 4.2 ± 1.5 pg/mL; in healthy subjects: 20.6 ± 4.5 pg/mL (Busquets et al, 2004)
¥ mean plasma levels in neonates: 1.02 ± 0.17 ng/mL; in children during puberty: 1.01 ± 0.12 ng/mL (Tomasik et al, 2004)
¥ plasma levels in normal individuals: 338.48 ± 20.24 pg/mL; in patients with hyperlipidemia: 343.51 ± 15.49 pg/mL (Lin J et al, 2004)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

Orexin B (OxB, hypocretin 2, HCRT2)

¥ mean plasma levels in neonates: 0.67 ± 0.18 ng/mL; in children during puberty: 0.65 ± 0.09 ng/mL (Tomasik et al, 2004)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

osteocalcin (OC, OCN, BGLAP, bone gamma-carboxyglutamate protein, BGP, Bone Gla protein, Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein)

¥ serum levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: 5.56 ng/mL (SD 3.67); serum levels in controls: 6.09 (SD 2.54) ng/mL (Campion et al, 1989)
¥ serum levels in prepubertal children with idiopathic short stature after zinc supplementation: 16.8 ± 10.6 to 25.8 ± 12.8 ng/mL (Imamoglu et al, 2005)
¥ serum levels in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: 1.9 ± 0.2 ng/mL; in patients with suppressed disease: 2.7 ± 0.2 ng/mL); in controls: 2.9 ± 0.2 ng/mL (Al-Awadhi, 1999).

¥ serum concentrations in acromegalic patients: 14.2 ± 4.2 micrograms/liter; in controls: 8.0 ± 3.3 micrograms/liter (Terzolo et al, 1993)
¥ serum levels before administration of vitamin D: 4.63 ± 1.8 ng/mL in the elderly group (age, 75.0 ± 10.9 years) and 4.33 ± 0.92 ng/mL in the young group (age, 29.0 ± 3.2 years); serum level in elderly group after vitamin D aministration: 11.5 ± 3.0 ng/mL (Nakatsuka et al, 1997)

Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2008


_____________________________________________________________________________

osteopontin (OPN, OP, Osp, 2ar, 44 kDa bone phosphoprotein, 66 kDa bone phosphoprotein, bone sialoprotein, bone sialoprotein-1, BSP, BSP1, BSPI, Calcium oxalate crystal growth inhibitor protein, Eta-1, early T-lymphocyte activation protein 1, Nephropontin, Spp-1, Secreted Phosphoprotein-1, transformation-related phosphoprotein, tumor-secreted phosphoprotein, urinary stone protein, Uropontin)

¥ median value in plasma from non-malignant patients: 4621.5 pg/mL (range: 0 - 20518.1 pg/mL); in patients with gastric carcinoma: 8680.5 pg/mL (range: 0 - 110373.2 pg/mL) (Rajkumar et al, 2010)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: July 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

Osteoprotegerin (OPG, FDCR-1, FDC-derived receptor-1, OCIF, osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor, OCIF/OPG, OPG/OCIF, TNFRSF11B, TNF receptor superfamily member 11B, TR1, TNF receptor-like-1)

¥ serum levels in healthy subjects: 35 pg/mL (4-100); pretreatment median serum levels in myeloma patients: 100 pg/mL (4-1000) (Kyrtsonis et al, 2004)
¥ mean plasma levels [ng/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 0.7 (0.5); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 0.8 (0.5); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 5.9 (2.6); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 0.4 (0.2); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 2.4 (1.6); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 1.7 (0.5); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 2.8 (2.2); with diabetes: 2.4 (1.5) (de Jager et al, 2007)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

Oxyntomodulin

¥ basal values in human plasma (8 men/women; mean age, 45 years; range, 20-77 years): 60 ± 7 ng/L) at 0500 h. Values rise with each food intake. Highest value (136 ± 21 ng/L) was obtained at 2100 h (Le Quellec et al, 1992).


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: September 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

PAI-1 (Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, PAI, plasminogen activator inhibitor, endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor, Serpin E1, MSF, monocyte suppressor factor, EIP-1, EGF-inducible protein 1)

¥ plasma antigen level in hypertensives: 30.9 ± 22.4 ng/mL; in normotensives: 24.4 ± 13.3 ng/mL (Dong et al, 2003).


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: April 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor, PDGF-1, PDGF-2, PDGF-A, PDGF-B, FDGF, fibroblast-derived growth factor, GDGF, glioma-derived growth factor-1, GDGF-2, glioma-derived growth factor-2, GSM, Glucocorticoid-suppressible mitogenic activity, MDF, mesangial cell proliferating factor, MDGF, monocyte-derived growth factor, OBIF, osteoblastogenesis inhibitory factor, ODGF, osteosarcoma-derived growth factor, T47D factor)

¥ median serum levels in patients with testicular germ cell tumors are 37,837 pg/mL (9,075-108,800), and 23,000 pg/mL (4,250-70,650) in the control group (Bentas et al, 2003)
¥ concentrations in hematoma fluid of patients with chronic subdural hematoma: 3,456 pg/mL (serum levels: 31,937 pg/mL); values are within range of normal volunteers (Weigel et al, 2001)
¥ levels in platelet-poor plasma of normal subjects: 0.6 - 2.3 micrograms/L. Levels in urine of normal subjects: 1.4 - 3.3 micrograms/L. Levels in platelet-poor plasma of patients with myelofibrosis: 6.2 ± 2.0 micrograms/L. of levels in urine of patients with myelofibrosis: 7.8 ± 2.4 micrograms/L. Levels in platelet-poor plasma of patients with essential thrombocythemia: 5.5 ± 1.5 micrograms/L. Levels in urine of patients with for plasma: 11.4 ± 2.2 micrograms/L. Levels in platelet-poor plasma of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia: 2.1 ± 0.4 micrograms/L. Levels in urine of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia: 2.8 ± 1.2 micrograms/L for urine). Levels in platelet-poor plasma of patients with polycythemia vera: 2.1 ± 0.2 micrograms/L); Levels in urine of patients with polycythemia vera: 3.7 ± 0.6 micrograms/L) (Gersuk et al, 1989)
¥ plasma levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: 626 ± 1390 [549 ± 856] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 391 ± 427 [405 ± 376] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

PDGFRB (pigment epithelium-derived factor, EPC-1, early population doubling level cDNA, Caspin, SDF-3, Stromal cell-derived factor-3)

¥ median value in plasma from non-malignant patients: 1391.5 pg/mL (range: 0 - 5461.8 pg/mL); in patients with gastric carcinoma: 2300.5pg/mL (range: 0 - 34754.4 pg/mL) (Rajkumar et al, 2010)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: July 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

PEDF (pigment epithelium-derived factor, EPC-1, early population doubling level cDNA, Caspin, SDF-3, Stromal cell-derived factor-3)

¥ median diabetic vitreous: 1.36 microg/mL (macula hole control: 2.6 microg/mL). In patients with moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy: 1.59 microg/mL. In patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy: 1.27 microg/mL (Patel et al, 2006) (Patel et al, 2006)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: July 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

pentraxin-3 (Pentaxin-3, PTX3, TNFAIP5, tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 5, pentraxin-related gene rapidly induced by IL1-beta, TSG-14, tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene sequence-14)

¥ median serum levels in women with preeclampsia: 13.8 ng/mL; median levels in serum of women with mormal pregnancies: 2.2 ng/mL; serum levels in women with normal pregnancies are significantly higher than in non-pregnant women and do not change among the 3 trimesters. (Cetin et al, 2006)
¥ plasma levels in normal subjects: 0.76 ± 0.2 ng/mL; plasma levels in chronic haemodialysis patients: 5.8 ± 0.6 ng/mL; plasma levels in peritoneal dialysis patients: 1.5 ± 0.4 ng/mL; plasma levels in patients with chronic renal failure not on dialysis therapy: 1.5 ± 0.4 ng/mL (Boehme et al, 2007)
¥ serum levels in pregnant women with preeclampsia: 5.08 ± 1.34 ng/mL; serum levels in normal control pregnancies: 0.59 ± 0.07 ng/mL (Rovere-Querini et al, 2006)
¥ plasma concentrations in normal controls: 2.01 ng/mL; mean peak concentration in patients with acute myocardial infarction: 6.94 ± 11.26 ng/mL (Peri et al, 2000)
¥
peak plasma levels on first day in patients affected by acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome: median 71.05 ng/mL, interquartile range 52.37-117.38 ng/mL; normal values <2 ng/mL (Mauri et al, 2008)

¥ bronchoalveolar lavage fluid levels in patients affected by acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome: 5.03 ng/mL, interquartile range 1.52-8.48 ng/mL (Mauri et al, 2008)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2012


_____________________________________________________________________________

PF4 (CXCL4, platelet factor-4, Endothelial cell growth inhibitor, Heparin neutralizing protein, Megakaryocyte-stimulatory-factor, Oncostatin A, SCYB4)

¥ median urinary levels in 35 out of 80 patients with mesangial IgA glomerulonephritis: 0.15, range 0.07-2.5 ng/mL. Not detectable in patients with membranous nephropathy, minimal change nephrotic syndrome, or healthy controls (Taira et al, 1992)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

Placental Protein 13 (PP13, galectin-13 (Gal-13, Placental Protein 13; Placental tissue protein 13, LGALS13, Galactoside-binding soluble lectin 13, PLAC8, placenta-specific 8)

¥ median (IQR) normative serum level of PP13 in unaffected pregnancies: 53.5 (37.7-71.8) pg/mL (Schneuer et al, 2012)
¥ maternal serum level in women developing preeclampsia in 3rd trimester: 157.9 ± 45.5 pg/mL); in control group (uncomplicated pregnancy until full term): 225.3 ± 67.3 pg/mL (El Sherbiny et al, 2012)
¥ median maternal serum levels in normal pregnant women delivering at term: were growing from 166 pg/mL (1st trimester) to 202 pg/mL (2nd trimester) and 382 pg/mL (third trimester) Preeclamptic women: significantly reduced levels in first trimester (multiples of median of 0.14 at 7-8 weeks; p = 0.005 compared to normal). Levels in third trimester: significantly higher compared to normal at 35-36 weeks with PP13 multiples of median of 1.79 (Huppertz et al, 2008)
¥ median first-trimester serum level in control subjects (9-12 weeks of gestation from women with uncomplicated term deliveries): 132.5 pg/mL; median levels in women with preeclampsia: 27.2 pg/mL; P < 0.001), IUGR (86.6 pg/mL; P < .001); in women with preterm delivery: 84.9 pg/mL; P = .007) (Chafetz et al, 2007)
¥ median serum levels for controls: 295.9 pg/mL; in preeclampsia cases with induced delivery prior to 35 weeks: 212.6 pg/mL; in early pre-eclampsia cases (delivery not induced before term): 171.2 pg/mL (Spencer et al, 2007)
¥ median maternal serum levels in 446 controls: 176.9 pg/mL; in 44 cases with early pre-eclampsia and delivery induced prior to 35 weeks: 121.9 pg/mL; in 44 cases with pre-eclampsia (delivery not induced before term): 111.7 pg/mL (Spencer et al, 2007)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: July 2012


_____________________________________________________________________________

pleiotrophin (PTN, HARP, heparin affin regulatory peptide, HBBM, heparin binding brain mitogen, HB-GAF, heparin binding growth-associated factor, HB-GAM, heparin binding growth-associated molecule, HBGF-8, heparin binding growth factor-8, HBNF, heparin binding neurotrophic factor, NEGF-1, neurite growth-promoting factor-1, OSF-1, osteoblast-specific factor-1)

¥ median serum levels in control sera: 1.455 ng/mL; levels in patients with seminoma pT1: 16.66 ng/mL; levels in patients with seminoma pT2/3: 15.31 ng/mL; levels in patients with non-seminoma pT1: 16.92 ng/mL; levels in patients with non-seminoma pT2/3: 18.88 ng/mL; (Aigner et al, 2000)

¥ serum levels in testicular cancer patients are approximately 20-fold above normal (Aigner et al, 2003)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

PlGF (placenta growth factor, Placental growth factor, PGF, PlGF-1, placenta growth factor-1, PlGF-2, placenta growth factor-2)

¥ After onset of clinical disease, mean urinary PlGF in women with preeclampsia was 32 pg/mL, compared with 234 pg/mL in controls with fetuses of similar gestational age (P<.001) (Levine et al, 2005)
¥ serum levels in women with severe preeclampsia: 138 ± 119 pg/mL versus 531 ± 340 pg/mLin women with normotensive pregnancy (Livingston et al, 2000)
¥
serum levels in healthy control subjects: 11.3 ± 0.7 pg/mL; in subjects with severe Sickle cell disease: 18.5 ± 1.2 pg/mL; in subjects with mild Sickle cell disease: 15.5 ± 1.2 pg/mL (Perelman et al, 2003)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: August 2010


_____________________________________________________________________________

preptin

¥ plasma levels in non-diabetic control subjects: 398 ± 13 ng/L; in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) 416 ± 13 ng/L; in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM): 456 ± 14 ng/L; Plasma preptin levels are lower in males than females (403 ± 10 versus 432 ± 10 ng/L) (Yang G et al, 2009)
¥ plasma levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS; a syndrome linked to obesity, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes): 823.2 ± 140.7 pg/mL; in control group: 324.9 ± 147.3 pg/mL (Celik et al, 2011)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: January 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

prolactin (PRL, lactogenic hormone, lactotropin, lactotropic hormone, mammotropin, mammotropic hormone, luteotropic hormone, LTH, luteotropin)

¥ serum concentrations in female patients with microprolactinoma (Sigala et al, 2004). Patients with hyperprolactinemia: 70.3 ± 8.4 ng/mL versus normal controls: 8.7 ± 3.2 ng/mL. Cabergoline therapy normalizes PRL (7.9 ± 3.6 ng/mL).


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

PTHrP (parathyroid hormone-like related protein, PTH-related protein, parathyroid hormone-related protein, PTHR, PTH-related peptide, Parathyroid hormone-related peptide, parathyroid hormone-like hormone, PTHLH)

¥ serum concentrations elevated in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and hypercalcemia: 7.1 - 33.2 pmol/L; normal levels: < 3.5 pmol/L (Yen et al, 1993)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: April 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

RANKL (RANK ligand, receptor activator of NF-kappa-B ligand, ODF, Osteoclast differentiation factor, OPGL, Osteoprotegerin ligand, SOFA, Stromal osteoclast-forming activity, TRANCE, tumor necrosis factor-related activation induced cytokine, TNFSF11, TNF ligand superfamily member 11)

¥ mean plasma levels [pg/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 0.9 (0.4); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 0.3 (0.1); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 3.2 (2.8); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 1.5 (0.9); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 30 (28); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 3.9 (3.4); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 1.2 (0.7); with diabetes: 0.8 (1.3) (de Jager et al, 2007)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

Relaxin (RLN, RLX, RLN1, relaxin 1, relaxin H1, H1 relaxin, RLXH1, RXN1, RLN2, relaxin 2, relaxin H2, H2 relaxin, RLXH2, RXN2)

¥ serum levels in controls: approx. 1.5 pg/mL (with slight variations depending on site of measurement (left ventricle, pulmonary artery, coronary sinus, antecubital vein); values in patients with moderate congestive heart failure are 4-6-fold higher than those of controls; values in patients with severe congestive heart failure are 12-16-fold higher than those of controls (Dschietzig et al, 2001)
¥ serum levels in pregnant women with no history of recurrent pregnancy loss at 10-12 weeks the presence of a notched waveform is associated with higher relaxin-2 levels than the absence of a notch (mean 2.1 ng/mL vs. 1.3 ng/mL); also at 20 weeks (2.1 ng/mL vs. 0.95 ng/mL) but no such difference is seen in the recurrent pregnancy loss group. Umbilical venous relaxin-2 is 4-fold higher in the recurrent pregnancy loss group than the control group (Anumba etal, 2009)
¥ serum levels in hypertensive patients: 36.5 ± 7.3 pg/mL; in normotensive controls: 49.7 ± 39.8 pg/ml (Gedikli et al, 2009)
¥ serum levels (median initial parameter concentrations) in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus undergoing oral antidiabetic treatment (pioglitazone or glimepiride for 26 weeks): 27.4 pg/mL (range 0.4 - 380 pg/mL) (Schšndorf et al, 2007)
¥ mean level in women with singleton gestations who achieved pregnancy after stimulation with human menopausal gonadotropin: 1.78 ng/mL (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5, 2.17); in nonstimulated subjects: 0.73 ng/mL (95% CI 0.59, 1.25) (Mushayandebvu et al, 1998)
¥ serum from 22 women between 8 and 11 weeks of pregnancy. Levels in maternal serum: median 1085 pg/mL; range 390-1259 pg/mL. Levels in extraembryonic coelomic fluid: median 57.5 pg/mL; range 17-145 pg/mL. Levels in amniotic fluid: median 10 pg/mL; range 10-37 pg/mL (Wathen et al, 1995)
¥ serum levels in pregnant women with a previous spontaneous preterm: median, 368 ng/L; range, 83-1493 ng/L; Black women have higher relaxin levels: 436 vs 205 ng/L; (Vogel et al, 2006)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: April 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

relaxin-like factor (RLF, Leydig cell insulin-like factor, Ley-I-L, Insulin-like-3, INSL3; RLN3, relaxin 3, relaxin H3, H3 relaxin, RLXH3, RXN3)

¥ mean serum concentrations in normal men: 562.3 ± 155.4 pg/mL; in normal women: 99.5 ± 21.7 pg/mL; in untreated orchidectomized men: 69.5 ± 26.3 pg/mL; in patients with Klinefelter syndrome: 157.5 ± 77.1 pg/mL; in infertile men with severe hypospermatogenesis: 289.0 ± 69.0 pg/mL; mean serum concentration in 10 normal men treated with CPA and testosterone causes a significant reduction of circulating hormone from 693.3 ± 131.8 pg/mL to 139.8 ± 64.9 pg/mL (Foresta et al, 2004)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: February 2008


_____________________________________________________________________________

Resistin (RSTN, RETN, RETN1, ADSF, adipose tissue-specific secretory factor, FIZZ-3, found in inflammatory zone-3)

¥ serum levels in uraemic patients on peritoneal dialysis: 26.3 ± 0.99; in uraemic patients on haemodialysis: 27.5 ± 1.4 microg/l; in conservative management (controls): 17.3 ± 1.0 microg/l (Diez et al, 2005)
¥ in patients with hyperthyroidism: 6.4 ± 0.8 microg/L; in normal patients: 8.4 ± 0.7 microg/L; in patients with hypothyroidism: 5.8 ± 1.0 microg/L (Iglesias et al, 2003)
¥ serum levels in control subjects: 14.1 ng/mL (Takeishi et al, 2007)
¥ serum levels in growth hormone deficient children after growth hormone therapy: median [range], 6.2 [4.9-11.8] ng/mL; basal serum levels: median [range], 5.6 [4.4-8.3] ng/mL (Nozue et al, 2007)
¥
serum levels in obese subjects: 5.3 ± 0.4 ng/mL; range 1.8-17.9; in lean subjects: 3.6 ± 0.4 ng/ml; range 1.5-9.9 (Degawa-Yamauchi M et al, 2003)
¥ serum concentrations in healthy females: 16.86 ± 5.39 ng/mL; in healthy males: 14.00 ± 7.16 ng/mL in males (Yannakoulia M et al, 2003)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: February 2008


_____________________________________________________________________________

S100A8 (S100 calcium binding protein A8, MRP-8, migration inhibition factor-related protein-8, myeloid-related protein-8, CP-10, chemotactic protein 10, CAGA, Calgranulin A, CGLA, CFAG, cystic fibrosis antigen, CF antigen)
S100A9 (S100 calcium binding protein A9, MRP-14, migration inhibition factor-related protein-14, myeloid-related protein-14, Calgranulin B, CAGB, CGLB, Calprotectin, CFAG, cystic fibrosis antigen, CF antigen)

¥ serum concentrations of MRP-8 / MRP-14 in healthy controls: 340 ± 70 ng/mL; in patients with active systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 14,920 ± 4,030 ng/mL; in patients with systemic infections: 2,640 ± 720 ng/mL; in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: 650 ± 280 ng/mL; in patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia: 840 ± 940 ng/mL; in patients with neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease: 2,830 ± 580 ng/mL (Frosch et al, 2009)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: June 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

S100A12 (p6, CGRP, calgranulin-related protein, Calgranulin C, CAAF-1, calcium-binding protein in amniotic fluid-1, ENRAGE, extracellular newly identified RAGE-binding protein, CO-Ag)

¥ mean serum level of S100A12 in patients with active polyarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: was 395 ng/mL; in patients with active oligoarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: and 325 ng/mL; normal values: <120 ng/mL; levels approximately 10-fold higher in synovial fluid than in serum (Foell et al, 2004)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: January 2007


_____________________________________________________________________________

S100b (S100-beta, S100, Astrocyte-derived growth factor, NEF, neurite extension factor) (Astrocyte-derived growth factor, NEF, neurite extension factor)

¥ urinary concentrations in healthy infants: first urination, 0.11 ± 0.01 micro g/L; 12 hours, 0.12 ± 0.03 micro g/L; 24 hours, 0.12 ± 0.02 micro g/L; 72 hours, 0.12 ± 0.02 micro g/L). Urinary concentrations in new-borns with abnormal neurologic findings on follow-up at first urination and 12, 24, and 72 hours after birth: first urination, 1.92 ± 0.33 micro g/L; 12 hours, 2.78 ± 1.71 micro g/L; 24 hours, 4.75 ± 4.08 micro g/L; 72 hours, 5.93 ± 1.63 micro g/L). Urinary concentrations in new-borns without abnormal neurologic findings: first urination, 0.24 ± 0.06 micro g/L; 12 hours, 0.13 ± 0.06 micro g/L; 24 hours, 0.21 ± 0.07 micro g/L; 72 hours, 0.12 ± 0.04 micro g/L) (Gazzolo et al, 2003)
¥ mean blood concentration 0.13 microg/L ± 0.08 immediately after radial artery cannulation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (Dabrowski, 2007)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2008


_____________________________________________________________________________

Salusin-alpha (TOR2A, torsin family 2 member A, torsin 2A, TORP1, torsin-related protein-1)

¥ in human serum: 11.0 - 40.4 pmol/L (mean ± SD: 23.3 ± 8.1 pmol/L (Sato K et al, 2006);
¥ in human urine: 18.6 - 367.3 pmol/L (mean ± SD: 156.8 ± 95.8 pmol/L (Sato K et al, 2006)
¥ serum levels in healthy volunteers: 20.7 ± 1.5 pmol/L; in patients with angiographically with proven coronary artery disease 4.9 ± 0.6 pmol/L; in patients with mild hypertension: 15.4 ± 1.1 pmol/L (Watanabe et al, 2008)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: September 2010


_____________________________________________________________________________

Salusin-beta (TOR2A, torsin family 2 member A, torsin 2A, TORP1, torsin-related protein-1)

¥ in normal human urine: 0.23 - 2.22 nmol/L (mean ± SD: 1.16 ± 0.84 nmol/L (Sato K et al, 2009)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: September 2010


_____________________________________________________________________________

SCF (stem cell factor, HLGF-1, hemolymphopoietic growth factor-1), KL, kit ligand, Mast/stem cell growth factor, MGF, mast cell growth factor, SCGF, stem cell growth factor, SLF, steel factor)

¥ serum levels in normal controls: 3.95 ± 0.91 ng/mL; in HIV-infected persons (Center for Disease Control stage A): 7.18 ± 1.94 ng/mL; in HIV-infected persons (stage B): 3.29 ± 0.75 ng/mL; in HIV-infected persons (stage C): 1.95 ± 0.39 ng/mL; Serum levels > 1.8 ng/mL associated with a longer survival in HIV-1-seropositive patients monitored for up to 114 weeks (Manegold et al, 1995)
¥ median serum levels in patients with allergic asthmatic patients: 1.83 ng/mL; in normal controls: 0.85 ng/mL (Lei et al, 2008)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

secretagogin (SCGN, SEGN, SECRET)

¥ normal serum levels: 1.7 pg/mL or below detection limit; serum levels in patients with different forms of neurological symptoms due to focal cerebral ischemia: 3 to 236 pg/mL (Gartner et al, 2001)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: September 2012


_____________________________________________________________________________

SLPI (secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, antileukoproteinase, BLPI, Bronchial leukocyte proteinase inhibitor, BMI bronchial mucus inhibitor, CUSI, cervical mucus inhibitor, HUSI-I, human seminal plasma inhibitor-I, MPI, Mucus proteinase inhibitor, seminal plasma inhibitor)

¥ Serum levels in patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis: 43.1± 18.4 ng/mL; in patients with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis with interstitial lung disease: 39.8± 10.3 ng/mL; in healthy controls: 30.9± 3.76 ng/mL (Aozasa et al, 2012)
¥ plasma levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: 49.5 ± 7.2 ng/mL; in normal controls: 40.7 ± 9.1 ng/mL (Hollander et al, 2007)
¥ serum concentration in ovarian cancer patients: median 67 ng/mlL interquartile range 26-124 ng/mL); in females with benign cysts: 37 ng/mL and 25-66 ng/mL; in healthy women: 32 ng/mL and 25-43 ng/mL) (Tsukishiro et al, 2005)
¥ median salivary concentrations in infants at birth: 341 ng/mL; at 6 months: 219 ng/mL (Farquhar et al, 2002)

median levels in seminal plasma of subjects with high levels (2.8-23,974.4 ng/mL) of elastase in seminal plasma: 15,900 ng/mL (range, 2.860-46,900 ng/mL (Maegawa et al, 2001)
¥ serum concentrations in healthy adults: 36.4± 2.3 ng/mL; in plasma 12 hrs after administration of lipopolysaccharide: 50.2± 4.0 ng/mL ; serum concentrations in septic surgical patients: of SLPI (132± 15 ng/mL); i healthy controls: 43± 2 ng/mL; in nonseptic surgical controls: 69± 10 ng/mL (Grobmeyer et al, 2000)
¥ peritoneal fluid levels in women with endometriosis: 91.6± 6.6 ng/mL; in controls (without endometriosis): 68.4± 5.3 ng/mL (Suzumori et al, 1999)
¥ in reflex tear fluids: 5-10 ng/microliter; in closed eye tear fluids: increased (Sathe et al, 1998)
¥ serum levels in patients with chronic bronchitis: 60 ± 2 ng/mL; in patients with Sjšgren's syndrome: 64 ± 5 ng/mL; in healthy control subjects: 60 ± 2 ng/mL (Andoh et al, 1997)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: August 2012


_____________________________________________________________________________

somatostatin (SST, Somatotropin release inhibiting hormone, SIH, Somatotropin release inhibiting factor, SRIF, growth hormone-inhibiting hormone, GIH, growth hormone release inhibitory hormone, GH-RIH)

¥ concentration in umbilical cord blood: 29 ± 17 pmol/L in blood collected from the infant 0.5 h after delivery: 19 ± 11 pmol/L; in blood collected from the infant 3.5 h after delivery: 16 ± 7 pmol/L (Marchini et al, 1990)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

syndecan-1 (CD138, syndecan, SDC1, Synd1, SD-1, 104-9 antigen, 1D4 antigen, B-B2 antigen, B-B4 antigen, Mi15)

¥ serum levels in healthy subjects: 40 ng/mL (28-75); pretreatment median serum levels in myeloma patients: 177.5 ng/mL (34-3500) (Kyrtsonis et al, 2004)
¥ serum levels of shed syndecan-1 ectodomain in patients diagnosed with locoregional squamous cell larynx or hypopharynx carcinoma treated with surgery and/or radiation therapy. Median pretreatment levels: 75 ng/mL. Median value 3 months following treatment: 58 ng/mL (Anttonen et al, 2006)
¥ serum levels in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma: 100.2 ± 35.9 ng/mL; in age- and sex-matched healthy controls: 67.9 ± 24.5 ng/mL (Vassilakopoulos et al, 2005)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: August 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

TGF-alpha (transforming growth factor-alpha, MDGF-2, milk-derived growth factor-2, TCGF, transformed cell growth factor)

¥ serum levels of TGF-alpha in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma before, during, and after radiation therapy (5-year follow-up period). Before radiotherapy: 36.6 ± 24.6 ng/mL); after radiotherapy: 20.2 ± 22.3 ng/mL; in patients with recurrence: 48.2 ± 23.4 ng/mL); in patients who died: 50.2 ± 28.8 ng/mL; in patients with no recurrence: 21.5 ± 26.8 ng/mL; in survivors: 20.4 ± 27.3 ng/mL (Yu et al, 2004)
¥ serum levels in normal females: 15 pg/mL; in patients with ovarian cancer: 159.8 pg/mL; in patients with benign ovarian cancer: 27.7 pg/mL (Chien et al, 1997)
¥ mean serum levels in normal controls: 21 ± 15 pg/mL; in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: 45 ± 40 pg/mL; in patients with cirrhosis but without hepatocellular carcinoma: 25 ± 19 pg/mL (Tomiya and Fujiwara, 1996)
¥ Urinary levels in healthy subjects: 4.9 ± 2.8 micrograms/g creatinine; levels in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: 21.5 ± 20.3 micrograms/g creatinine (Yeh et al, 1987)
¥ serum levels in normal controls: 5.6 ± 2.1 pg/mL; in patients with chronic hepatitis: 33.2 ± 8.3 pg/mL; in patients with liver cirrhosis: 404.0 ± 173.0 pg/mL; in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: 100.3 ± 39.2 pg/mL (Harada et al, 1999)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

TGF-beta-1 (transforming growth factor-beta, TGFB, B-TGF, Aqueous humor lymphocyte inhibitory activity, DIF, differentiation-inhibiting factor, EGI, epithelial cell-specific growth inhibitor; epithelial growth inhibitor, EIF, Epstein-Barr virus inducing factor, Epithelial cell growth inhibiting factor, G-TsF, glioma-derived T-cell suppressor factor, MDGF, milk-derived growth factor, MGF, milk growth factor, Polyergin, Simian BSC-1 cell growth inhibitor, SP factor, TCGF, transformed cell growth factor, TGI, tissue-derived growth inhibitor, TIF-1, tumor inducing factor-1)

¥ mean serum level of TGF-beta-1 in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (230 ± 95 ng/mL) is higher than that of healthy controls (137 ± 81 ng/mL, p=0.012) (Sakaguchi et al, 2004)
¥ TGF-beta-1 serum levels in patients with breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in situ (I-III) or benign breast lesions and healthy women are 48.8 (18-82.4) pg/mL, 45.3 (26.9-58.3) pg/mL, 47.2 (17.2-80.5) pg/mL and 51.6 (30.9-65.1) pg/mL, respectively (p=0.2) (Lebrecht et al, 2004)
¥ serum concentrations in patients with psoriasis are 42.9 ± 9.9 ng/mL and 37.7 ± 6.0 ng/mL in controls (Nockowski et al, 2004)
¥ serum levels are higher in postmenopausal women with the TT genotype than in those with the CC genotype (46.5 ng/mL vs. 32.3 ng/mL) (Hinke et al, 2001).
¥ serum values (mean ± SD) in hemodialysis patients are 26.64 ± 7.0 ng/mL (N=155) compared with 42.31 ± 6.0 ng/mL in controls (N=41). In the coronary heart disease group (N=32) the TGF-beta1 was 26.2 ± 4.9 ng/mL; in the cerebrovascular disease group (N=8) it was 26.7 ± 3.7 ng/mL, and in the peripheral vascular disease group (N=9) it was 25.4 ± 1.7 ng/mL. In dialysis patients with no cardiovascular disease (N=80) TGF-beta1 was 35.1 ± 6.8 ng/mL (Stefoni et al, 2002)
¥ serum levels TGF-beta1 in patients with invasive breast cancer: 498.7 ± 249.7 pg/mL; control group (patients with fibrocystic disease, fibroadenoma): 495.2 ± 225.5 pg/mL (Sheen-Chen et al, 2001)
¥ serum levels in patients with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura according to platelet counts (pltc): 23.5 ± 2.8 ng/mL in patients with > 150x10(9)/l); 2.3 ± 0.6 ng/mL in patients with <50x10(9)/l; 7.2 ± 1.7 ng/mLin patients with 50-150x 10(9)/l; healthy volunteers: 9.8 ± 1.3 ng/mL (Andersson et al, 2000)
¥ serum levels of bioactive factor in controls: 104 ± 18 pg/mL; in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: 290 ± 46 pg/mL (Chao et al, 1991)
¥ median serum levels in patients with benign prostate hyperplasy: 35.15 ng/mL; median levels in patients with cancer of the prostate: 32.86 ng/mL; no increase in levels with advancing tumor stage (stage pT1-3pNoMo: 32.86 ng/mL; stage T1-3pN + Mo: 34.3 ng/mL; stage T1-4NxM+: 33.44 (ng/mL) (Wolff et al, 1999)
¥ Serum TGF-beta-1 levels in healthy controls (406 ± 424 pg/mL) (Buyan et al, 2003)
¥ levels in renal pelvic urine in children 3 months after surgery for symptomatic unilateral pelviureteral junction obstruction: 285 ± 191 pg./mg. 22 ± 18 pg./mg in bladder urine of normal controls (El-Sherbiny, 2002)
plasma concentration in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: 28.6 ± 27.9 ng/mL; in normal subjects: 5.3 ± 3.3 ng/mL (Shirai et al, 1992)
¥ TGF-beta serum levels in patients with periprosthetic osteolysis having received a cementless hip prosthesis: 23175 ± 8773.58 pg/mL; serum level in patients without osteolysis: 21120 ± 13657 pg/mL; serum levels in normal controls: 23615 ± 10681 pg/mL (Fiorito et al, 2003)
¥ serum levels in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with diffuse skin fibrosis with more severe internal organ involvement: 3552 ± 2357.2 pg/mL; serum levels in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with limited cutaneous involvement: 3499 ± 2357.2 pg/mL; levels in normal controls: 3542 ± 4409.5 pg/mL (Scala et al, 2004)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

thrombomodulin (CD141, TM, THBD, THRM, fetomodulin, FM)

¥ serum levels in patients with vivax malaria 5.7 ± 1.3 Fujirebio units/mL; in normal controls: 3.2 ± 0.7 Fujirebio units/mL (Ohnishi, 1999)
¥ plasma levels in Fontan procedure patients: 1.5 ± 0.8 Fujirebio units/mL; in normal controls: 2.2 ± 0.3 Fujirebio units/mL (Kajimoto et al, 2009)
¥ soluble thrombomodulin in healthy laboratory controls: 2.3 ng/mL; in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II: 9.5 ng/mL; in patients having had cardiopulmonary bypass surgery: 1.2 ng/mL (Davidson et al, 2007)
¥ serum levels in patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF): 20.9 ± 12.1 ng/mL; in attack-free FMF patients: 22.4 ± 12.9 ng/mL; in healthy controls: 14.1 ± 8.4 ng/mL (Ozbalkan et al, 2006)
¥ plasma levels in patients with Hypothyroidism: 2.58 ± 0.14 ng/mL; in normal controls: 2.68 ± 0.20 ng/mL (Nagasaki et al, 2005)
¥ mean synovial fluid levels in patients with osteoarthritis: 23.5 ng/mL; mean plasma levels in patients with osteoarthritis: 24.2 ng/mL; mean synovial fluid levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: 136.2 ng/mL; mean plasma levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: 43.9 ng/mL (Conway and Nowakowski, 1993)
¥ plasma levels in controls: 36 ± 8 ng/mL; in patients with peripheral occlusive arteriopathy disease: 51.3 ± 19.7 ng/mL; in patients with coronary artery disease: 49.2 ± 15.4 ng/mL; in patients with polyvascular involvement: 49.6 ± 17.2 ng/mL (Conri et al, 1993)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: October 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

thymosin-alpha-1 (Prothymosin-alpha, PTMA, Thymalfasin, Zadaxin)

¥ serum levels in healthy adults are in the 0.1 to 1 ng/mL range (Weller et al, 1992). Circulating levels tend to be lower in diseased individuals and higher during pregnancy. (Jevremovic et al, 1997; Sherman et al, 1991; Welch et al, 1987, 1988)
¥ prothymosin alpha in human blood: 55-70 pmol/mL (0.6-0.8 microgram/mL) (Pannerselvam et al, 1987)
¥ serum level in persons exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD): 977.3 ± 304.1 pg/mL; in controls: 1148.7 ± 482.1 pg/mL (Stehr-Green et al, 1989)
¥ maternal venous blood levels in pregnancy: 1,207 ± 947 pg/mL; levels in healthy adults: 1,043 ± 576 pg/mL; mixed umbilical cord serum levels: 1,466 ± 940 pg/mL (Welch et al, 1987)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: August 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

thymosin-beta-4 (TMSB4)

¥ in tear fluids: 0.5-7 mug/mL; in saliva: 0.2-3.6 mug/mL. In both fluids, Tbeta(4) concentration varies with age and appears to peak at ages 25-35 years (Badamchian et al, 2007)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: August 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

Thymulin (Serum thymic factor, FTS, facteur thymique serique)

plasma concentrations in patients with acromegaly: 561 ± 241 pg/L; in normal subjects: 315 ± 113 pg/L (Timsit et al, 1992)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: December 2008


_____________________________________________________________________________

TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1, TIMP, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, HCI, human collagenase inhibitor, CLGI, 3/10, 16C8, Fibroblast elongation factor, fibroblast collagenase inhibitor, B1 anticollagenase, Beta-1 anticollagenase, EPA, erythroid promoting activity, embryogenin-1, TPA-S1, TPA-induced protein S1)

¥ median value in plasma from non-malignant patients: 31048.9 pg/mL (range: 15603 - 220729.6 pg/mL); in patients with gastric carcinoma: 98054.4 pg/mL (range: 6252.5 - 463941 pg/mL) (Rajkumar et al, 2010)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor-alpha)

¥ normal serum levels: 1.88 ± 3.97 ng/mL (279 stroke-free subjects undergoing carotid duplex Doppler ultrasound; mean age 67.6 ± 8.5 years; 49% men; 63% Hispanic, 17% black, 17% white) (Elkind et al, 2002)
¥ Serum soluble TNF-alpha receptor type I in patients with liver cirrhosis: 1682.1 (1344.8-2179.4) ng/L, versus normal controls: 1319.6 (1037.7-1632.1) ng/L (Lin et al, 2002)
¥ serum concentrations in elderly subjects with involuntary weight loss are significantly higher in subjects with weight loss (mean ± SD 19.3 ± 24.9 pg/mL) than in subjects with stable weight (mean ± SD 1.1 ± 2.0 pg/mL, p<0.01) (Ruscin et al, 2005)
¥ serum levels (geometric mean concentrations in pg/mL) in patients with malaria (Lyke et al, 2004). Severe cases versus healthy controls: 10.1 versus 7.7; P = <0.001.
¥ serum concentration in women with overweight and obesity (Olszanecka-Glinianowicz et al, 2004). serum levels in lean controls: 2.9 ± 2.2 pg/mL; in overweight group: 6.5 ± 3.1 pg/mL, in obese group (body mass index 30 to 40 kg/m2): 6.8 ± 3.1 pg/mL; in obese group (body mass index > 40 kg/m2): 7.4 ± 2.6 pg/mL
¥ serum levels determined in patients with chronic heart failure and ongoing myocardial damage (New York Heart Association (NYHA) III + IV and NYHA II) (Setsuta et al, 2004). Values are III + IV: 10.5 ± 3.8 versus II: 8.0 ± 2.7 pg/mL, p=0.02.
¥ serum levels in patients with non-inflammatory stage III-B breast cancer achieving a partial or complete clinical response to three courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by modified radical mastectomy (Berberoglu et al, 2004). Mean pre-treatment value of breast cancer patients: 15.9 ± 0.9 pg/mL versus 5.8 ± 1.7 pg/mL in control group, (p < 0.0001).
¥ serum levels in patients with congestive heart failure in relation to adenosine monophosphate deaminase-1 gene polymorphism that regulates adenosine levels, which, in turn, attenuates TNF-alpha expression (Gastmann et al, 2004). Serum concentrations are 4.2 ± 2.0 pg/mL for genotype AMPD1(+/+), 5.3 ± 2.9 pg/mL for genotypes AMPD1( ± ) and AMPD1(-/-) (p = 0.045).
¥ serum levels in patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE grades 0-4) in fulminant hepatic failure (Odeh et al, 2004). Mean ± SEM values in patients with grade 0 of HE (n=23): 4.50 ± 0.46 pg/mL; in patients with grade 1 (n=12): 9.10 ± 1.0 pg/mL; in patients with grade 2 (n=14): 12.98 ± 1.22 pg/mL; in patients with grade 3 (n=16): 21.51 ± 2.63 pg/mL; in patients with grade 4 (n=9): 58.26 ± 19.7 pg/mL
¥ serum levels in 31 male cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (mean age: 65 ± 2 years) are 12.3 ± 0.7 pg/mL. Serum levels in 26 male cirrhotic patients without hepatocellular carcinoma (mean age: 59 ± 3 years) are 11.3 ± 1.2 pg/mL. Serum levels in 25 male control subjects (mean age: 67 ± 2 years) are 5.8 ± 0.7 pg/mL (Wang et al, 2003).
¥ serum levels in young children with Kawasaki disease are 24.1 ± 9.4 pg/mL in the acute stage, 11.8 ± 5.8 pg/mL in the subacute stage, and 10.4 ± 4.9 pg/mL in normal controls (Ahn et al, 2003).
¥ serum levels in patients with lichen planus: 35.64 ± 9.59 pg/mL; in controls: 15.6 ± 3.97 pg/mL (Erdem et al, 2003)
¥ serum levels are elevated (32.5-182.5 pg/mL) in 41/47 Guillain-Barre syndrome patients and drop to 8.5-58.5 pg/mL after treatment (Radhakrishnan et al, 2004)
¥ serum levels in patients with myocardial infarction are 22.0 ± 3 pg/mL); 18.7 ± 4 pg/mL in patients with unstable angina, 17.3 ± 4 pg/mL in patients with stable angina (SA), and 8.3 ± 1.4 pg/mL in healthy volunteers (Mizia-Stec et al, 2003)
¥ serum levels are 5.13 ± 1.37 pg/mL in patients with bronchial hyperreactivity and 3.91 ± 0.61 pg/mL in symptom-free healthy controls (Halasz et al, 2003)
¥ serum levels are 2.41 ± 0.18 pg/mL in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with various degrees of nephropathy and 0.46 ± 0.18 pg/mL in healthy volunteers. Levels in diabetic patients with microalbuminuria or clinical albuminuria are 3.20 ± 0.41 pg/mL, and 1.94 ± 0.18 pg/mL in patients without albuminuria (Morikawa et al, 2003)
¥ serum concentrations in patients with hypothyroidism: 3.17 ± 1.18 pg/mL; controls: 2.42 ± 0.76 pg/mL (Diez et al, 2002).
¥ Pentoxifylline lowers serum concentrations from 4.1 ± 0.7 to 2.9 ± 0.6 pg/mL in patients with type 2 diabetes (Bilsborough et al, 2002)
¥ normal serum levels are 2.74 ± 0.94 pg/mL, and 8.44 ± 4.15 pg/mL in patients with renal carcinoma (Yoshida et al, 2002)
¥ median serum levels in newborn infants (n = 32; gestational age 39 ± 3 weeks) with sepsis: 22 pg/mL; in nonseptic neonates: 13 pg/mL (Martin et al, 2001).
¥ serum levels of circulating ICAM-1 in HIV-1-infected children: 284 ± 29 pg/mL; 4.8 ± 0.89 pg/mL in HIV-1-uninfected age-matched controls (Obregon et al, 1996)
¥ serum levels in obese men with Type 2 diabetes mellitus with insulin resistance: 4.19 ± 0.96 pg/mL; in patients without insulin resistance: 2.52 ± 1.64 pg/mL; in controls: 2.03 ± 1.21 pg/mL (Mishima et al, 2001)
¥ mean serum level 44.1 ng/L in obese and 34.2 ng/L in lean identical twins discordant for obesity (Ronnemaa et al, 2000)
¥ serum concentrations in normal controls: 5.39 ± 0.68 ng/L; in patients with bacterial pneumonia in acute stage: 16.94 ± 5.70 ng/L; in convalescent stage: 5.80 ± 0.75 ng/L; in patients with respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia: 5.06 ± 0.44 ng/L (Wang et al, 1999)
¥ serum levels in 49 infants (25 full-term, 24 preterm) with proven sepsis and 40 healthy infants (20 full-term, 20 preterm): median serum levels significantly higher in infants suffering from sepsis (154 pg/mL), particularly in those with septic shock (242.5 pg/mL), as compared to healthy controls (61.5 pg/mL) (Atici et al, 1997)
¥ mean serum levels in healthy women: 0.98 ± 0.37 pg/mL; in age-mateched women with invasive breast cancer: 1.47 ± 0.58 pg/mL (Sheen-Chen et al, 1997)
¥ average serum levels in controls: TNF-alpha 6.59 pg/mL; average levels in patients with nonalcoholic fattiy liver: 9.70 pg/mL (…zbek et al, 2003)
¥ mean serum levels in controls (with normal parathyroid function): 2.5 ± 0.2 pg/mL; mean serum levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: 11.6 ± 0.8 pg/mL (Grey et al, 1996)
¥ serum levels in women with normal menstrual cycle: 15.5 ± 1.32 pg/mL (Loret de Mola et al, 1996)
¥ serum levels in healthy control children: range, 0 to 53 pg/mL; mean, 12.5 pg/mL; in children with hemolytic uremic syndrome: range, 1 to 95 pg/mL; geometric mean, 32.2 pg/mL (Lopez et al, 1995)
¥ median serum TNF-alpha levels in Graves' disease patients: 20 pg/mL, after antithyroid medication: 20 pg/mL; levels in controls: 5 pg/mL (Celik et al, 1995)
¥ Serum levels in normal pregnancy in first trimester: 54.9 ± 46.1 pg/mL; in second trimester: 55.8 ± 41.6 pg/mL; in third trimester: 50.5 ± 47.3 pg/mL. Serum levels in pregnancies with women suffering from pregnancy-induced hypertension: in first trimester: 161.7 ± 70.9 pg/mL; in second trimester: 139.4 ± 92.2 pg/mL; in third trimester100.9 ± 36.3 pg/ mL (Matsubara et al, 2003)
¥ median umbilical cord serum levels after vaginal delivery: 6.2 ± 2.3 pg/mL; median umbilical cord serum levels after Caesarian delivery: 4.5 ± 1.0 pg/mL; neonatal day 1 serum levels after vaginal delivery: 7.8 ± 1.9 pg/mL; neonatal day 1 serum levels after Caesarian delivery: 5.3 ± 1.5 pg/mL; neonatal day 4 serum levels after vaginal delivery: 10.4 ± 3.5 pg/mL; neonatal day 4 serum levels after Caesarian delivery: 7.3 ± 2.9 pg/mL (Malamitsi-Puchner et al, 2005)
¥ bronchoalveolar lavage levels in patients with recently diagnosed sarcoidosis and indications for therapy: 1,872 ± 428 pg/mL; in patients with recently diagnosed sarcoidosis and no indications for therapy: 1,561 ± 449 pg/mL; in healthy controls: 220 ± 37 pg/mL (Ziegenhagen et al, 1997)
¥ serum levels in patients with Whipple's disease: 6.36 ± 0.90 pg/mL; in controls: 10.5 ± 1.23 pg/mL (Kalt et al, 2006)
¥ mean plasma levels [pg/mL, (SD)], in children (healthy controls): 1.1 (0.6); in children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 4.0 (3.6); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis 15 (6.3); with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission 4.1 (2.1); with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 20 (17); with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission: 0.4 (0.3); with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 2.9 (8.2); with diabetes: 1.6 (6.2) (de Jager et al, 2007)
¥ median serum levels in untreated patients with Graves' disease versus controls: 8.1 vs. 16.0 pg/mL (Pedro et al, 2011)
¥ serum levels in patients with periprosthetic osteolysis having received a cementless hip prosthesis: 4.32 ± 5.2 pg/mL; serum level in patients without osteolysis: 3.84 ± 1.13 pg/mL; serum levels in normal controls: 3.42 ± 2.12 pg/mL (Fiorito et al, 2003)
¥ serum levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and high plasma PTHrP levels: 9.0 ± 2.0 pg/mL; serum levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and low plasma PTHrP levels: 3.6 ± 0.5 pg/mL; serum levels in normal controls: 1.5-12.0 pg/mL (Takahashi et al, 2003)
¥ serum levels in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with diffuse skin fibrosis with more severe internal organ involvement: 19.8 ± 12 pg/mL; serum levels in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with limited cutaneous involvement: 17.4 ± 5.7 pg/mL; levels in normal controls: 10.0 ± 5.4 pg/mL (Scala et al, 2004)
¥ serum levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: 28.88 ± 29.85 pg/mL; in healthy controls: 38.56 ± 51.26 pg/mL (Chen H et al, 2012)
¥ plasma levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: 18.1 ± 33.9 [5.4 ± 12.5] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 32.8 ± 110 [5.51 ± 10.4] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)
¥ plasma levels in healthy subjects: 5.89 ± 4.94 pg/mL; in patients with latent tuberculosis: 4.6 ± 0 pg/mL; in patients with active tuberculosis: 82.56 ± 4.12 pg/mL (Yu Y et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: March 2013


_____________________________________________________________________________

TNF-alpha receptors, soluble

¥ serum levels of TNF-alpha soluble receptors in chronic heart failure patients both in the compensated and decompensated state (Tziakas et al, 2004)
¥ at admission: (soluble TNFR1: 5.15 ng/mL, 4.49-8.90 ng/mL, P < 0.001, sTNFR2: 13.40 ng/mL, 6.10-21.50 ng/mL, P < 0.001); at one-month follow-up: (soluble TNFR1: 5.30 ng/mL, 4.61-6.90 ng/mL, P < 0.001, soluble TNFR2: 21.80 ng/mL, 11.50-25.20 ng/mL, P < 0.001), compared to the control group (soluble TNFR1: 3.83 ng/mL, 3.70-3.95 ng/mL, soluble TNFR2: 4.00 ng/mL, 3.40-5.40 ng/mL)
¥ mean serum levels in patients with newly diagnosed onset of Graves' hyperthyroidism are 3.7 ± 1.3 ng/mL. Mean values in a matched group of apparent healthy individuals are 1.8 ± 0.5 ng/mL, and 1.9 ± 0.6 ng/mL in a matched group of patients with treated Graves' disease (anti-thyroid drugs) (Pichler et al, 2003)
¥ TNFR1 serum levels are 1.37 ± 0.28 ng/mL in patients with bronchial hyperreactivity and 1.16 ± 0.13 ng/mL in symptom-free healthy controls (Halasz et al, 2003)
¥ TNFR2 serum levels are 0.78 ± 0.42 ng/mL in patients with bronchial hyperreactivity and 0.43 ± 0.41 ng/mL in symptom-free healthy controls (Halasz et al, 2003)
¥ Serum soluble TNFR1 in patients with liver cirrhosis: 1682.1 (1344.8-2179.4) ng/L, versus normal controls: 1319.6 (1037.7-1632.1) ng/L (Lin et al, 2002)
¥ Serum soluble TNFR1 in patients with liver cirrhosis: 4462.2 (3748.5-5159.4) ng/L, versus normal controls: 3559.8 (2506.9-3988.9 ng/L (Lin et al, 2002)
¥ serum concentrations of sTNFR1 in patients with hypothyroidism: 1273 ± 364 pg/mL; controls: 971 ± 235 pg/mL (Diez et al, 2002).
¥ serum levels of soluble TNFR2 in hemodialysis patients with hypoalbuminemia: 47.4 ± 4.7; in hemodialysis patients with normoalbuminemia: 35.3 ± 2.1 ng/mL (Odamaki et al, 2002)
¥ normal values for TNFR1: 1, 2.21 ± 0.99 ng/mL (279 stroke-free subjects undergoing carotid duplex Doppler ultrasound; mean age 67.6 ± 8.5 years; 49% men; 63% Hispanic, 17% black, 17% white) (Elkind et al, 2002)
¥ normal values for TNFR2: 4.85 ± 2.23 ng/mL (279 stroke-free subjects undergoing carotid duplex Doppler ultrasound; mean age 67.6 ± 8.5 years; 49% men; 63% Hispanic, 17% black, 17% white) (Elkind et al, 2002)
¥ mean serum level of soluble TNFR2 1,989 ng/L in obese and 1,840 ng/L in lean identical twins discordant for obesity (Ronnemaa et al, 2000)
¥ serum levels of soluble TNFR1 in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: 2.82 ± 1.37 ng/mL versus 1.40 ± 0.33 ng/mL in healthy controls (Kawaguchi et al, 1996)
¥ serum levels of soluble TNFR2 in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: 3.83 ± 1.76 ng/mL versus 1.62 ± ng/mL (Kawaguchi et al, 1996)
¥ median umbilical cord serum levels of TNFR1 after vaginal delivery: 2.4 ± 0.8 pg/mL; median umbilical cord serum levels after Caesarian delivery: 1.8 ± 0.4 pg/mL (Malamitsi-Puchner et al, 2005)
¥ Levels of p55 receptor in serum from newborns: 3.2 micrograms/L, interquartile range: 0.7 micrograms/L. Levels in first-voided urine from newborns: 44.6 micrograms/L, interquartile range: 96.6 micrograms/L. Urine levels in children (1 mo < age < 5 y): 7.3 micrograms/L, interquartile range: 13.8 micrograms/L. Urine levels in children in children (5 y < age < 10 y): 6.9 micrograms/L, interquartile range: 2.9 micrograms/L (Austgulen et al, 1993)
¥ serum median levels of soluble TNFR1 in chronically-infected HCV patients treated with IFN-alpha plus ribavirin showing early virological response: 721.7 pg/mL [interquartile range: 636.7-996.7 pg/mL]; in patients without early virological response: 824.6 pg/mL [interquartile range: 537.3-1064.9 pg/mL]; serum median levels in chronically-infected HCV patients treated with IFN-alpha plus ribavirin showing sustained virological response: 289.9 pg/mL [interquartile range: 157.7-512.9 pg/mL]; in patients without sustained virological response: 142.7 pg/mL [interquartile range: 86.7-206.6 pg/mL] (Moura et al, 2011)
¥ serum median levels of soluble TNFR2 in chronically-infected HCV patients treated with IFN-alpha plus ribavirin showing early virological response: 2078 pg/mL [interquartile range: 1992.8-2947.1 pg/mL]; in patients without early virological response: 2411 pg/mL [interquartile range: 1837.6-2657.8 pg/mL]; serum median levels in chronically-infected HCV patients treated with IFN-alpha plus ribavirin showing sustained virological response: 2078 pg/mL [interquartile range: 1808.5-2683.4 pg/mL]; in patients without sustained virological response: 2328.7 pg/mL [interquartile range: 1910-2632.2 pg/mL] (Moura et al, 2011)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

TRAIL (soluble) (TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand, APO-2 ligand, APO-2L, TL2, TNF-like-2, TNF ligand superfamily member 10, TNFSF10, Ly81, CD253)

¥ levels in the peripheral blood of the HBV infected patients: 1378.35 ± 540.23 pg/mL; in normal healthy controls: 613.75 ± 175.80 pg/mL (Han et al, 2002)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: January 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

transferrin (TRF, DF-77, GPBP, granulocyte/pollen-binding protein, Lung-derived growth factor)

¥ concentration in umbilical cord blood healthy term neonates at the time of vaginal delivery: 199.7 ± 34.6 mg/dL (Aliyazicioglu et al, 2007)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: January 2009


_____________________________________________________________________________

TREM1 (soluble form) (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1)

¥ serum levels in healthy subjects: median 0.25 ng/mL, range 0-5.9 ng/mL; in sera of patiens with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: median 11.68 ng/mL, range 6.2-41.9 ng/mL (Radsak et al, 2007)
¥ patients with severe Gram-negative sepsis and soluble TREM1 concentrations > 180 pg/mL survive longer compared with those patients with soluble TREM1 concentrations ² 180 pg/mL (Giamarellos-Bourboulis et al, 2006)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: August 2008


_____________________________________________________________________________

urocortin (UCN, Urocortin-1, Urotensin-1)

¥ Mean amniotic fluid urocortin concentrations in women with preterm labor: 1.55 ± 0.63 ng/mL; in women with term labor: 1.6 ± 0.49 ng/mL (Iavazzo et al, 2009)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: September 2010


_____________________________________________________________________________

Urocortin-3 (UCN3, stresscopin, SCP)

¥ serum levels in human plasma: 51.8 ± 16.0 pmol/liter; in urine: 266 ± 20 pmol/liter (Takahashi et al, 2004)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2006


_____________________________________________________________________________

Vaspin (Visceral adipose-specific serpin, Visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor, Serpin A12, OL-64)

¥ serum levels in control subjects: 0.42 ± 0.05ng/mL; in nonobese subjects: 1.62 ± 0.22 ng/mL; in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects: 2.76 ± 0.38 ng/mL (El-Mesallamy HO, 2010)
¥ serum levels in fetuses (appropriate-for-gestational-age): 0.39 [0.04-19.06] ng/mL; in fetuses (intrauterine growth-restricted): 0.40 [0.05-1.34] ng/mL; at postnatal day 1 (appropriate-for-gestational-age): 0.40 [0.04-16.70]; at postnatal day 1 (intrauterine growth-restricted): 0.44 [0.23-3.34] ng/mL; at postnatal day 4 (appropriate-for-gestational-age): 0.49 [0.02-8.89] ng/mL; at postnatal day 4 (intrauterine growth-restricted): 0.55 [0.06-3.92] ng/mL (Briana et al, 2011)
¥ serum levels in overweight or obese children before seven-day intensive lifestyle modification (physical activity, dietary modification, and behavioral modificationeducation): 84 ± 1.0 ng/mL; in overweight or obese children after seven-day intensive lifestyle modification (physical activity, dietary modification, and behavioral modification education): 51 ± 1.0 ng/mL (Lee MK et al, 2010)
¥ Serum levels in diabetic female patients: 592 (438 - 695) pg/mL; in female subjects with normal glucose tolerance: 380 (294 - 517) pg/mL (Ye Y et al, 2009)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: September 2010


_____________________________________________________________________________

VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF-A, vascular endothelial growth factor A, VEGF-1, vascular endothelial growth factor-1, VEG/PF, vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor, GD-VEGF, glioma-derived vascular endothelial growth factor, VAS, Vasculotropin, Vascular endothelial cell proliferation factor, VPF, vascular permeability factor, FSdGF, Folliculo stellate cell-derived growth factor)

¥ Serum levels in 47 healthy individuals range from below the detection limit to 168.1 pg/mL (mean, 32.7 pg/mL). Serum levels in patients with various head and neck squamous cell carcinomas range from below detection limit to 937.1 pg/mL (mean, 144.5 pg/mL) (Riedel et al, 2000).
¥ serum level is 79.35 ± 13.25 pg/mL in multiple myeloma patients and 34.41 ± 1.78 pg/mL in control group (P = 0.006] (Hu et al, 2005)
¥ hepatocellular carcinoma patients with a serum VEGF level higher than median (over 245.0 pg/mL) have significantly worse overall and disease-free survival than those with a lower level (P = 0.012 and P = 0.022, respectively (Poon et al, 2004).
¥ serum levels in patients with inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing transarterial chemoembolization (Poon et al, 2004). Median serum level: 240 pg/mL (range 9-1730). Pretreatment serum levels in patients with progressive disease (median 434 pg/mL); in patients with stable disease (median 176 pg/mL, P=0.010); in patients with responsive disease (median 142 pg/mL, P<0.001) after chemoembolization. Patients with serum levels >240 pg/mL have significantly worse survival than those with serum levels <240 pg/mL (median survival 6.8 vs. 19.2 months, P=0.007).
¥ serum levels were determined in women 11 days after a day-3 embryo transfer (Fasouliotis et al, 2004). They were similar in women with biuochemical and ectopic and higher than in women with normal intrauterine pregnancy and first trimester miscarriage (571.8 ± 61.8, 604.4 ± 73.4 vs. 448.9 ± 39.9, 461.8 ± 39.2 pg/mL, respectively).
¥ median serum levels in patients with persistent disease, and survival at second-look laparotomy in ovarian cancer (Alvarez Secord et al, 2004). Patients with negative second looks: 264 pg/mL (range 109-896 pg/mL); patients with positive second-looks: 390 pg/mL (range 99-1011 pg/mL) (P = 0.1).
¥ serum levels in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (mean [± SD] 598.03 ± 298.25 pg/mL); in patients with inactive pulmonary tuberculosis (mean 296.98 ± 115.31 pg/mL); in control subjects (mean 339.67 ± 74.65 pg/mL) (Alatas et al, 2004).
¥ serum VEGF concentration in prostate cancer patients: 518.9 ± 60.7 pg/mL, in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients: 267.9 ± 99.9 pg/mL (p < 0.001) (Trapeznikova et al, 2004)
¥ serum levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing early reperfusion therapy (Seko et al, 2004). Mean serum levels 685.6 ± 150.3 pg/mL compared with 173.7 ± 33.6 pg/mL in controls. After reperfusion: 284.2 ± 90.2 pg/mL.
¥ mean serum values determined in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (Robak et al, 2003). Normal control group: 124.7 pg/mL; active disease: 300.8 pg/mL; inactive disease: 165.9 pg/mL.
¥ serum levels in patients with soft tissue sarcoma. patients with grade 2 sarcomas: 413 pg/mL; grade 2 sarcomas: 467 pg/mL; patients with benign lesions: 233 pg/mL (Hayes et al, 2004).
¥ serum levels in patients with HIV associated CNS disorders: 381.1 (78.9) pg/mL in patients with HIV associated CNS diseases; 120.8 (13.1) pg/mL in patients without CNS disorders, 133.1(14.8) pg/mL in HIV negative control patients. Serum samples from patients with untreated HIV associated encephalopathy (HIVE, n = 3) contained the highest VEGF levels (583.9 (71.5) pg/mL (Sporer et al, 2004).
¥ Preoperative serum levels in patients with colon carcinoma (mean, 504.1 pg/mL ± 223 pg/mL; range, 285-1390 pg/mL; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 49 pg/mL) compared with normal control group (mean, 78.1 pg/mL ± 22 pg/mL; range, 40-110 pg/mL; 95%CI, 4.3 pg/mL; P < 0.001). Serum levels in patients who underwent curative surgery (443 pg/mL ± 117 pg/mL) versus patients who underwent noncurative surgery (821 pg/mL ± 353 pg/mL P < 0.0001) (De Vita et al, 2004).
¥ serum level is 196.3 ± 103.2 pg/mL in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (n = 32; age 47.7 ± 16.7 years), and 152.0 ± 84.1 pg/mL in control group (n = 37; age 48.2 ± 15.5 years) (Cirulli et al, 2003)
¥ serum levels in antecubital venous blood are 98.60 ± 26.99 pg/mL in 16 patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP), 103.61 ± 24.89 pg/mL in 16 with unstable angina pectoris (UAP), 285.92 ± 125.15 pg/mL in 16 with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) before thrombolytic therapy and 111.57 ± 31.29 pg/mL thrtee hours after thrombolysis. Serum levels in age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers are 80.44 ± 24.57 pg/mL (Yin et al, 2000)
¥ median serum concentrations are 415.0 pg/mL (range 110-2,120 pg/mL) in women with epithelial ovarian cancer, 312.5 pg/mL (range 100-1,250 pg/mL) in women with borderline ovarian tumor, 170 pg/mL (range 70-925 pg/mL) in women with benign ovarian tumor, and 165 pg/mL (range 100-735 pg/mL) in healthy control women (Tan et al, 2000)
¥ serum levels in patients with systemic sclerosis are 432 ± 356 pg/mL as opposed to 91 ± 64 pg/mL in controls. Levels in patients with diffuse cutaneous scleroses are 432 ± 356 pg/mL. Levels in patients with limited cutaneous scleroses are 135 ± 127 pg/mL (Choi et al, 2003).
¥ serum level in patients with metastatic liver cancer is 503 ± 84 pg/mL, 205 ± 38 pg/mL in patients with livercancers without metastases, and 201 ± 26 pg/mL in healthy controls (Miyashita et al, 2003)
¥ serum level in children with cyanotic congenital heart disease before cardiac surgery is 355.0 ± 287.1 pg/mL), compared with children with acyanotic heart disease (203.0 ± 221.6 pg/mL). VEGF levels in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease and a single ventricle associated with asplenia syndrome are 711.9 ± 443.5 pg/mL. Levels in patients with abnormal vessels are336.8 ± 182.5 pg/mL, and levels in patients without abnormal vessels are 359.1 ± 306.8 pg/mL) (Ootaki et al, 2003).
¥ median serum levels in patients with testicular germ cell tumors are 270 pg/mL (0-1,903), and 200 pg/mL (44-585) in the control group (Bentas et al, 2003).
¥ vitreous levels in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy: median 0.41 ng/mL, range 0.09-11.56 ng/mL. Vitreous levels in control subjects: median 0.017 ng/mL, range 0.008-0.04 ng/mL. Serum concentration in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy: 0.19 ng/mL (0.090.46 ng/mL) (Deng et al, 1999)
¥ median VEGF levels were 622 pg/mL (range, 272-4760) in patients with polycythemia vera, 306 pg/mL (range, 111-408) in patients with secondary polycythemia, and 143 pg/mL (range, 91-282) in healthy controls (Murphy et al, 2002).
¥ mean serum levels in patients with multiple myeloma: 0.31 ng/mL, and 0.08 ng/mL in normal controls (Iwasaki et al, 2002)
¥ serum levels in patients with squamous cell oesophageal cancer: 146.0 pg/mL, 79.0-386.3 pg/mL versus 38.0 pg/mL, 6.5-135.1 pg/mL in controls (Wallner et al, 2001)
¥ serum levels in normal pregnancy group: 149.39 ± 27.15) ng/L; in nonpregnant group: 11.98 ± 3.99) ng/L, peaking in the second trimester of pregnancy (183.84 ± 49.02) ng/L and decreasing in the third trimester (118.37 ± 34.29) ng/L. Serum concentrations in women with pregnancy-induced hypertension: 64.45 ± 24.33 (Chen et al, 2000)
¥ serum levels in normal control group: 245 ± 61 pg/mL; serum levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and severe nighttime hypoxia: 410 ± 77 pg/mL; serum levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and severe nighttime hypoxia: 224 ± 38 pg/mL (Schulz et al, 2002)
¥ serum levels in patients with thymic carcinoma: 1,080 ± 1,185 pg/mL; healthy volunteers: 407 ± 589 microg/mL (Sasaki et al, 2001)
¥ concentrations in hematoma fluid of patients with chronic subdural hematoma: 8.142 pg/mL (serum levels: 368 pg/mL); values are within range of normal volunteers (Weigel et al, 2001)
¥ serum levels in 56 head and neck cancer patients: 102-1699 pg/mL (median 405 pg/mL, mean 527 ± 396 pg/mL) (Dunst et al, 2001)
¥ serum levels in healthy controls and patients with bladder cancer (mean 248 pg./mL versus 100 pg/mL. Levels in patients with metastasis: mean 582 pg./mL versus 194 pg./mLin patients with localized diseases (Bernardini et al, 2001)
¥ median serum levels in patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia: 1208 ng/mL versus 138 ng/mL in controls (Di Raimondo et al, 2001)
¥ Intravitreous concentrations in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy than in control subjects in absolute terms (1.34 ng/mL [0.16-6.22] vs. 0.009 ng/mL [0.009-0.044], P <0.0001) and after correcting for total vitreal proteins (0.33 ng/mL [0.01-2.3] vs. 0.013 ng/mL [0.003-0.035], P = 0.0001) (Hernandez et al, 2001).
¥ serum levels differ significantly between patients with a colorectal cancer (mean 438 pg/mL) and controls (mean 203 pg/mL), and also between tumor and normal tissue (984 vs 89 pg/mg protein) (Broll et al, 2001)
¥ median pretreatment values in myeloma patients responding to chemotherapy: 223 pg/mL; post-treatment 105 pg/mL. (Sezer et al, 2001)
¥ median levels were 3.4 ng/mL (range, 0.1-11.2 ng/mL) in patients with clear cell renal carcinoma, versus and 2.5 ng/mL (range, 0.1-4.2 ng/mL) in healthy controls (Feldman et al, 2000)
¥ serum levels in women with severe preeclampsia: 6.36 ± 3.96 pg/mL versus 18.65 ± 5.98 pg/mL in women with normotensive pregnancy (Livingston et al, 2000)
¥ median serum levels in normal pregnant women: 12.89 pg/mL); in nonpregnant women: 166 pg/mL; in pre-eclampsia: 2.34 pg/mL (Lyall et al, 1997)
¥ median serum concentrations in healthy female controls (n = 130): 216 (range, 0-777) pg/mL; in patients with vulvar cancer (n = 41): 260 (range, 33-1216) pg/mL (Hefler et al, 1999)
¥ serum levels in healthy subjects: 34 ± 12 pg/mL; in patients with superficial urothelial cancer: 49 ± 27 pg/mL; in patients with invasive cancer: 51 ± 35 pg/mL (Miyake et al, 1999)
¥ median serum levels of healthy individuals (N= 145): 294 pg/mL (range, 30-1752 pg/mL; 95th percentile, 883 pg/mL); median serum levels from patients with metastatic ovarian carcinoma: 1022 pg/mL (range, 349-7821 pg/mL); median levels in malignant effusions of patients with ovarian carcinomas: 5528 pg/mL (range 468-49269 pg/mL) in ovarian carcinoma; median levels in malignant effusions of patients with breast carcinoma: 885 pg/mL (77-14,337 pg/mL); median levels in malignant effusions of patients with gastrointestinal carcinoma: 813 pg/mL (372-18,331 pg/mL); median levels in ascitic fluid from patients with cirrhosis: 303 pg/mL (median, range 116-676 pg/mL) (Kraft et al, 1999)
¥ serum levels in healthy subjects: 16.01 ± 3.46 ng/L; serum levels in esophageal carcinoma patients: 92.81 ± 5.86 ng/L; urine levels in healthy subjects: 15.27 ± 4.22 ng/L; urine levels in esophageal carcinoma patients: 277.92 ± 22.71 ng/L (Xu and Wang, 2001)
¥ plasma levels in normal volunteers: mean 49.9 pg/mL, SD 48.4 pg/mL; range: undetectable to 157.3 pg/mL; undetectable in plasma from pregnant women and amniotic fluid (Banks et al, 1998)
¥ serum levels in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: 465.62 ± 336.24 pg/mL; in patients with benign liver lesions: 159.54 ± 120.58 pg/mL; in normal controls: 123.53 ± 51.84 pg/mL (Zhao et al, 2003)
¥ serum levels in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma: mean (SD): 585.7 ± 408.4 pg/mL, median(range): 5858.41 (970.4-12 158.9) pg/mL; serum levels in healthy controls: mean (SD): 444.9 ± 328.9 pg/mL, median(range): 346.9 pg/mL (31.1-630.6) (Al-Moundhri et al, 2008)
¥ serum levels in in obese individuals: 150 ± 104 pg/mL; in lean individuals: 296 ± 160 pg/mL (G—mez-Ambrosi J et al, 2010)
¥ plasma levels in Puumala hantavirus-infected females [males] in acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: 38.8 ± 27.2 [41.0 ± 26.6] pg/mL; in infected females [males] during the convalescent phase: 37.1 ± 23.3 [37.1 ± 24.3] pg/mL (Klingstršm et al, 2008)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: June 2012


_____________________________________________________________________________

VEGF receptor-1 (soluble) (VEGFR1, flt, fms-like tyrosine kinase, flt-1, fms-like tyrosine kinase-1; FRT, fms-related tyrosine kinase)

mean serum values determined in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Active SLE patients: 42.2 pg/mL; patients with inactive disease: 32.0 pg/mL) (Robak et al, 2003)
¥ serum levels in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma: mean (SD): 873.7 ± 360.8 pg/mL, median(range): 1026.4 (279.4-1767.6) pg/mL; serum levels in healthy controls: mean (SD): 645.3 ± 297.9 pg/mL, median(range): 475.4 (224.1-1333.6) pg/mL (Al-Moundhri et al, 2008)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2008


_____________________________________________________________________________

VEGF receptor-2 (soluble) (KDR, kinase insert domain receptor, flk-1, fetal liver kinase-1, CD309, Quek-1, quail endothelial kinase-1)

¥ mean serum values determined in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: 12557.6 pg/mL; in control group: 15025.3 pg/mL (Robak et al, 2003).
¥ serum levels in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma: mean (SD): 9266.5 ± 2 111.1 pg/mL, median(range): 9382.3 (4726.1-15 427.3) pg/mL; serum levels in healthy controls: mean (SD): 9420.3 ± 1840.7 pg/mL, median(range): 9386.2 ( 5727.9-15 433.3) pg/mL (Al-Moundhri et al, 2008)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2008


_____________________________________________________________________________

VEGF-C (vascular endothelial growth factor C, VEGF-2, Vascular endothelial growth factor-2)

¥ median plasma levels in colorectal cancer patients: 35.0 U/mL (range: 17.4-75.9 U/mL); in normal controls: 11.5 U/mL (range: 5.4-21.5 U/mL) (Duff et al, 2003)
¥ serum levels in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma: mean (SD): 6141.0 ± 2456.1 pg/mL, median(range): 469.3 pg/mL (44.1-1927.7); serum levels in healthy controls: mean (SD): 6067.8 ± 2219.3 pg/mL, median(range): 5872.3 (711.7-12 158.9) pg/mL (Al-Moundhri et al, 2008)
¥ serum levels in in obese individuals: 13 453 ± 5750 pg/mL; in lean individuals: 17 635 ± 5117 pg/mL (G—mez-Ambrosi J et al, 2010)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: May 2010


_____________________________________________________________________________

VEGF-D (vascular endothelial growth factor D, FIGF, fos induced growth factor)

¥ serum levels in women with sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis: median 1,175 [interquartile range: 780 - 2,013] pg/mL; in women with other cystic lung diseases: median 281 [interquartile range: 203-351] pg/mL; 12/15 individuals diagnosed with lymphangioleiomyomatosis had levels of > 800 pg/mL; levels are < 600 pg/mL in all subjects later diagnosed with other causes of cystic lung disease. Serum levels in women with uberous sclerosis complex / lymphangioleiomyomatosis: median 3,465 [interquartile range: 1,970 - 7,195] pg/mL; in women with tuberous sclerosis complex only: median 370 [interquartile range 291-520] pg/mL (Young et al, 2010)
¥ serum levels in obese individuals: 538 ± 301 pg/mL; in lean individuals: 270 ± 122 pg/mL (G—mez-Ambrosi J et al, 2010)
¥ serum levels in patients with colorectal cancer with lymph node involvement: 335 pg/mL [113-1102]; without lymph node involvement: 316.5 pg/mL [0-1343] (Duff et al, 2005)
¥ serum levels in healthy women: mean of 208 pg/mL (range: 91-437 pg/mL; median serum concentration in women with breast cancer prior to the start of chemotherapy: 616 pg/mL (range: 60-2168 pg/mL); median values following djuvant chemotherapy: 447 pg/mL (range: 42-2550 pg/mL (KŸmmel et al, 2006)
¥ serum levels in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: geometric mean 95% CI; 1069.3 pg/mL (809.4 1412.6); in age- and gender-matched healthy controls: 295.9 pg/mL (262.6 333.5) (Seyama et al, 2006)
¥ serum levels in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma: mean (SD): 483.0 ± 259.3 pg/mL, median(range): 428.9 pg/mL (205.7-1355.2); serum levels in healthy controls: mean (SD): 671.1 ± 501.8 pg/mL, median(range): 605.9 pg/mL (205.7-3859.7) (Al-Moundhri et al, 2008)
¥ serum levels in healthy volunteers: 657 ± 43 pg/m; serum levels in patients with sporadic LAM: 1,869 ± 145 pg/mL; mean serum concentrations of patients with lymphatic involvement: 2,277 ± 173 pg/mL; mean serum concentrations of patients without lymphatic involvement: 945 ± 186 pg/mL; reproducibility of assays (12 randomly picked samples): first assay average, 2,048 pg/mL; second assay average, 1,800 pg/mL (Glasgow et al, 2009)
¥ serum levels in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and lymph node metastases: 241.92 pg/mL; in with papillary thyroid carcinoma without lymph node metastases: 213.89 pg/mL (Lai et al, 2011)
¥ serum levels in Kawasaki disease patients at 1 year after disease onset: 356 ± 27 pg/mL (range, 164-561 pg/mL); in healthy controls: 388 ± 34 pg/mL (range, 166-557 pg/mL); serum levels in Kawasaki disease patients before intravenous immunoglobulin therapy: 397 ± 28 pg/mL, range 37-1,157 pg/mL); serum levels in Kawasaki disease patients after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy: 727 ± 56 pg/mL; range, 245-2,022 pg/mL (Ebata et al, 2011)

Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: June 2011


_____________________________________________________________________________

Visfatin (VF, PBEF, pre B-cell colony enhancing factor, PBEF1, pre B-cell colony enhancing factor-1, EC2.4.2.12, Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, NMN diphosphorylase, NMN pyrophosphorylase, NAmPRTase, Nampt)

¥ serum levels in lean women: 20.8ng/mL; in pregnant women: 40.3ng/mL (Morgan et al, 2008)
¥ mean plasma level in patients with ischemic stroke: 51.5 ± 48.4 ng/mL; in control subjects without stroke: 23.0 ± 23.9 ng/mL (Lu LF et al, 2009)
¥ plasma levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: 31.9 ± 31.7 ng/mL; in nondiabetic subjects: 15.8 ± 16.7 ng/mL (Chen MP et al, 2006)
¥ plasma concentrations in patients with metabolic syndrome: 27 (16- 65) ng/mL; in controls: 19 (10-47) ng/mL (Filippatos et al, 2007)
¥ serum levels in control subjects: 9.37 ± 1.98 ng/mL; in nonobese subjects: 25.9 ± 3.44 ng/mL; in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects: 45.4 ± 4.60 ng/mL (El-Mesallamy HO, 2011)
¥ serum levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who engage in low or moderate-intensity physical activities (> 2 h/week): 10.16 ± 5.53 ng/mL; serum levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who do not report any physical activity or report light activities (<2 h/week): 14.77 ± 8.48 ng/mL (Kadoglou et al, 2012)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: September 2012


_____________________________________________________________________________

XCL1 (chemokine C motif ligand-1, CL1, lymphotactin, Ltn, Lptn, SCM-1-alpha, Single C motif-1-alpha, ATAC, activation induced T-cell derived and chemokine related, SCYC1)

¥ mean mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: 2,080 ± 490 pg/mL; mean values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from age-matched female healthy volunteers: 2,300 ± 630 pg/mL (Pacheco-Rodriguez et al, 2009)
¥ levels in synovial fluid samples of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: 4.64 ± 1.86ng/mL, mean ± standard deviation, ranging from 2.29 to 7.69ng/mL); levels in paired serum samples: 1.55 ± 0.41ng/mL, ranging from 1.10 to 2.47ng/mL (Wang et al, 2004)


Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: June 2011




 

See REFERENCES for entry Cytokine Concentrations in Biological Fluids.

Click BACKLINKS to see which COPE entries contain the term Cytokine Concentrations in Biological Fluids .




COPE Homepage Top of Page


 
 
SUPPORT COPE | Intro | Subdictionaries | New Entries | Contribute data | COPE Credentials
# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

www.limes-institut-bonn.de Please inquire. COPE is interested in contacts with corporate sponsors appreciating and committed to communication biology

              Created, developed, and maintained by Prof Dr H Ibelgaufts              
About the author of COPE
  |    Contact COPE   |    Terms & Conditions


U L T R A   P O S S E   N E M O   O B L I G A T U R