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Cementoblasts are derived from from cells of the fibrous and cellular connective tissue that fills the space between the tooth and its bony socket and mediates tooth attachment to bone (periodontal ligament; see also: periodontal ligament cells). Cells in the periodontal ligament comprise fibroblastic and mineralized tissue-forming progenitor cells. The mineralized tissue-forming progenitor cells are believed to give rise to the cementoblastic and osteoblastic lineages, but the true origin of cementoblasts is still controversial. It has been proposed that cementoblasts that produce cellular intrinsic fiber cementum and acellular intrinsic fiber cementum are unique phenotypes that are unrelated to osteoblasts (Bosshardt, 2005).
Dental mesenchymal cells, the mesenchymal cells in the developing tooth, are derived cranial neural crest cells and the non-cranial neural crest cells. These neural crest-derived cells migrate, proliferate and differentiate into odontoblasts, cementoblasts, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, and chondroblasts. Cho et al (2003) have reported studies with transgenic mice, demonstrating that dental pulp tissue developing from transplanted tooth germs are derived from circulating cells of the adult host invading the dental pulp during tooth development. They have suggested that these circulating progenitor cells could be the origin of non-cranial neural crest-derived cells. Seo et al (2004) have reported that the stem cells contained within the human periodontal ligament express the mesenchymal stem cell markers STRO-1 and CD146. Under defined culture conditions, these cells differentiate into cell resembling cementoblasts, adipocytes, and collagen-forming cells. When transplanted into immunocompromised rodents, these cells generate a cementum/ periodontal ligament-like structure and contribute to periodontal tissue repair.
Cementoblasts resemble bone-forming osteoblasts but differ functionally and histologically. Mature cementoblasts produce matrix proteins common to osteoblasts, suggesting that cementoblasts are uniquely positioned osteoblasts (MacNeil et al, 1998). These proteins include collagen type 1 (Andujar et al, 1991; Tenorio et al, 1993), osteocalcin (Bronckers et al, 1994; Takano-Yamamoto et al, 1994), osteopontin (McKee et al, 1996), bone sialoprotein (D'Errico et al, 1997), DMP1 [Dentin matrix protein 1] (MacDougall et al, 1998; Terasawa et al, 2004; Toyosawa et al, 2004), and cementum matrix protein (Wu et al, 1996). Morphological features (Bosshardt and Schroeder, 1996) and the expression, in some cementoblasts, of dental epithelium markers, such as keratin (Thomas, 1995; Alatli et al, 1996; Webb et al, 1996), E-cadherin (Terling et al, 1998), and ameloblastin (Fong et al, 1996), may indicate that cells derived from root epithelium persist during cementum formation (Thomas, 1995).
Cementoblasts lay down cementum on the surface of root dentin. Cementum is a mineralized tissue very much like bone that connects the periodontal ligament to the tooth root surface. Cementum may be found both on the root as well as the crowns of teeth. Some forms of cementum are cellular or have a fibrillar collagenous matrix of collagen type 1. Others are acellular and do not possess a fibrillar collagenous matrix and are composed mostly of mineralized matrix (Saygin et al, 2000; Diekwisch, 2001). Zeichner-David et al (2003) have suggested that the acellular and cellular cementum compartments are synthesized by two different types of cells. The acellular cementum is produced by cementoblasts derived from the bilayered epithelial sheath termed Hertwig's epithelial root sheath, which is produced by fusion of the inner and outer enamel epithelia below the level of the crown cervical margin. The cellular cementum is formed by cementoblasts derived from neural crest cells.
Cementocytes are cementoblasts that have become embedded in hollow spaces in the cellular cementum called lacunae. They are called also cement cells. Processes of the cementocytes project toward the periodontal ligament in small tubes in the cementum called canaliculi. The acellular, afibrillar cementum is produced exclusively by cementoblasts and is typically found as coronal cementum on human teeth (Bosshardt and Schroeder, 1996).
Cementoblasts have been shown to possess the capacity to express the proteins listed below. Please note the following general observations, which practically apply to all cell types: expression may be influenced by tissue localization, may occur only in discrete subpopulations of cells, may vary between established cell lines, primary cells, embryonic cells, mature cells, fully differentiated cells, activated cells, non-activated cells or growth conditions (confluent vs. sparse cultures), may be influenced by various disease states (including cancer environment), and may differ between species.
Note also: expression profile information lists entities only for which there is an entry in COPE or one of its subdictionaries.
The meaning of ¥ and ¥¥ is as follows: ¥ factor/protein is expressed; ¥¥ receptor (or, in some instances, binding sites) for this factor/protein is expressed. For further explanations concerning format, "hidden" information, and/or ambiguities see my remarks in the entry cell types.
¥ ADAMTS1 (Disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif-1, METH-1, KIAA1346) (Sone et al, 2005)
¥ ADAMTS4 (Disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif-4, Aggrecanase-1, hyalectanase) (Sone et al, 2005)
¥ ADAMTS5 (Disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif-5, ADAMTS11, Disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif-11, aggrecanase-2, implantin) (Sone et al, 2005)
¥¥ BDNF (Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Abrineurin) receptors (Kajiya et al, 2008)
¥ Beta-Netrin (Hetrin, hepar-derived netrin-like protein, Netrin-4) (Dangaria SJ et al, 2011)
¥ bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor, FGF basic, FGF-2, Fibroblast growth factor-2, FGF-beta, Fibroblast growth factor-beta, HBGF-2, heparin binding growth factor-2) (Madan and Kramer, 2005; Kanaya S et al, 2010)
¥¥ bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor, FGF basic, FGF-2, Fibroblast growth factor-2, FGF-beta, Fibroblast growth factor-beta, HBGF-2, heparin binding growth factor-2) receptors (Hakki et al, 2005)
¥ Biglycan (BGN, PG-S1, Bone/cartilage proteoglycan 1; bone small proteoglycan 1, small proteoglycan 1, Proteoglycan-1, DSPG1, dermatan sulfate proteoglycan-1, SLRR1A) (Cheng H et al, 1999)
¥ BMP receptors (Li et al, 2001)
¥ BMP2 (bone morphogenetic protein-2, bone morphogenetic protein-2A, BMP2A, BMP2-alpha) (Li et al, 2001; Kajiya et al, 2008)
¥¥ BMP2 (bone morphogenetic protein-2, bone morphogenetic protein-2A, BMP2A, BMP2-alpha) receptors (Zhao et al, 2003)
¥ BMP4 (bone morphogenetic protein-4, bone morphogenetic protein-2B, BMP2B, DVR-4, decapentaplegic-Vg-related-4, BIP, bone-inducing protein) (Li et al, 2001)
¥ CD14 (endotoxin receptor, Leu M3, LPS-R, Mo2, MY4, myeloid cell-specific leucine-rich glycoprotein, hdl, heedless) (Nemoto et al, 2008)
¥ CD49e (fibronectin receptor alpha chain, FNRA, ITGA5, integrin-alpha-5, ECMR-6, Extracellular matrix receptor-6, class 6 ECMR, GPIc, platelet glycoprotein Ic, VLA-alpha 5, very late activation antigen alpha-5, VLA-5, very late activation antigen 5, VLA-5-alpha) (Steffensen et al, 1992)
¥ CD107a (LAMP-1, lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein-1, LAMPA, lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein A, LGP120, lysosomal glycoprotein 120) (Zhang H et al, 2010)
¥ cementum matrix protein (Wu et al, 1996)
¥ collagen type 1 (Andujar et al, 1991; Tenorio et al, 1993; D'Errico et al, 2000; Maruya et al, 2003; Sasano et al, 2001)
¥ collagen type 12 (D'Errico et al, 2000)
¥ Dickkopf-1 (dkk-1, dickkopf-related protein 1, Sk) (Dangaria SJ et al, 2011)
¥¥ Dickkopf-1 (dkk-1, dickkopf-related protein 1, Sk) receptors (Nemoto E et al, 2009)
¥ DMP1 [Dentin matrix protein 1] (MacDougall et al, 1998; Terasawa et al, 2004; Toyosawa et al, 2004)
¥ E-cadherin (epithelial cadherin, Arc-1, cadherin-1, CDH1, CAM 120/80, ECAD, L-CAM, liver cell adhesion molecule, Uvomorulin, rrl antigen, CD324) (Terling et al, 1998)
¥¥ EGF (epidermal growth factor, EGF-URO, HMGF, human milk growth factor, PGF, prostatic growth factor, beta-Urogastrone, URO, URG, Urogastrone, tooth-lid factor) receptors (EGFR, EGF receptor 1, epidermal growth factor receptor 1, erb, erbB1, HER1, SA-7, species antigen 7) (Cho et al, 1991; Sismanidou et al, 1996)
¥ FGF-23 (Fibroblast growth factor-23, ADHR, autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets, phosphatonin) (Yoshiko et al, 2007)
¥ Fibromodulin (FMOD, collagen binding 59 kDa protein, SLRR2E) (Grzesik et al, 2000)
¥ fibronectin (FN, fibronectin-1, FN1, LETS, large external transformation-sensitive protein, Fibroblast surface antigen, SF antigen, SFA, CIg, CI globulin, cold-insoluble globulin, CSP, galactoprotein A, MSF, migration stimulating factor, Z protein) (Lukinmaa et al, 1991)
¥¥ fibronectin (FN, fibronectin-1, FN1, LETS, large external transformation-sensitive protein, Fibroblast surface antigen, SF antigen, SFA, CIg, CI globulin, cold-insoluble globulin, CSP, galactoprotein A, MSF, migration stimulating factor, Z protein) receptors (Steffensen et al, 1992)
¥ F-spondin (SPON1, spondin-1, VSGP, Vascular smooth muscle cell growth-promoting factor) (Kitagawa et al, 2006)
¥¥ growth hormone (GH, Somatotropic hormone, Somatotropin, GH1, growth hormone 1, GHN, growth hormone normal) receptors (Li et al, 2001; Zhang et al, 1992)
¥ IGF-1 (Insulin-like growth factor-1, Erythropoietic factor, mechano growth factor, MGF, ILGF1, somatomedin C, NSILA, non-suppressible insulin-like activity, Somatomedin A, Somatomedin C, sulfation factor, Mecasermin) (Tenorio et al, 1993)
¥¥ IGF-1 (Insulin-like growth factor-1, Erythropoietic factor, mechano growth factor, MGF, ILGF1, somatomedin C, NSILA, non-suppressible insulin-like activity, Somatomedin A, Somatomedin C, sulfation factor, Mecasermin) receptors (IGF1R, CD221, JTK13) (Gotz et al, 2001; Saygin et al, 2000)
¥ IGFBP5 (Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5, IGF binding protein-5) (Dangaria SJ et al, 2011)
¥ IL6 (interleukin-6, 26 kDa protein, BSF-2, B-cell stimulating factor-2, CDF, CAT development factor, choline acetyltransferase development factor, Cytolytic differentiation factor for T-lymphocytes, FDGI, fibroblast-derived growth inhibitor, hybridoma growth factor, HPGF, hybridoma/plasmacytoma growth factor, HSF, hepatocyte stimulating factor, HSF-1, hepatocyte stimulating factor-1, ILHP1, Interleukin-hemopoietin-1, MGI-2A, Macrophage-granulocyte inducer-2A, Myeloma GF, myeloma growth factor, NKAF, natural killer cell activating factor, TAF, T-cell activating factor, Thymocyte growth factor, TSF, thymocyte stimulating factor) (Nemoto et al, 2008)
¥ jagged-1 (JAG1, JAGL1, jagged, Serrate-1) (Dangaria SJ et al, 2011)
¥ LRP5 (low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5, LDL receptor-related protein 5, LRP7, LDL receptor-related protein 7, low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 7, LR3) (Nemoto E et al, 2009)
¥ LRP6 (low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6, LDL receptor-related protein 6, ringelschwanz, rs, crooked tail, Cd) (Nemoto E et al, 2009)
¥ MMP-1 (matrix metalloproteinase-1, collagenase, collagenase-1, CL-1, CLG1, fibroblast collagenase, fibroblast-type collagenase, interstitial collagenase, tissue collagenase, EC22.214.171.124) (Domon et al, 1999; Okamura et al, 1993)
¥ MMP-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-2, EC126.96.36.199, 70 kDa gelatinase, 72 kDa gelatinase, 72 kDa metalloproteinase, collagenase type 4, collagenase type 4A, 72 kDa type IV collagenase, Gelatinase 72 kDa, Gelatinase A, Type IV collagenase, Type IVA collagenase, neutrophil gelatinase) (Maruya et al, 2003)
¥ MMP-8 (matrix metalloproteinase-8, neutrophil collagenase, PMNL collagenase, polymorphonuclear leukocyte collagenase, collagenase-2, CLG2, CL-2) (Maruya et al, 2003; Tsubota et al, 2002)
¥ neurokinin A receptors (Fristad et al, 2003)
¥ NOD1 (Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein 1, CARD4, caspase recruitment domain-containing protein-4, NLRC1, NLR family, CARD domain containing 1) (Nemoto et al, 2008)
¥ NOD2 (Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein 2, CARD15, caspase recruitment domain-containing protein-15, NLRC2, NLR family, CARD domain containing 2, IBD1, inflammatory bowel disease 1, BLAU, CLR16.3) (Nemoto et al, 2008)
¥ osteocalcin (OC, OCN, BGLAP, bone gamma-carboxyglutamate protein, BGP, Bone Gla protein, Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein) (Bronckers et al, 1994; D'Errico et al, 1999; D'Errico et al, 1999, 2000; Hakki et al, 2005; Ivanovski et al, 2000; Kagayama et al, 1997; Li et al, 2001; Maruya et al, 2003; Nociti et al, 2004; Sasano et al, 2001; Saygin et al, 2000; Somerman et al, 1999; Swanson et al, 2006; Takano-Yamamoto et al, 1994; Tenorio et al, 1993; Nemoto E et al, 2009; Nu–ez J et al, 2010)
¥ osteopontin (OPN, OP, Osp, 2ar, 44 kDa bone phosphoprotein, 66 kDa bone phosphoprotein, bone sialoprotein, bone sialoprotein-1, BSP, BSP1, BSPI, Calcium oxalate crystal growth inhibitor protein, Eta-1, early T-lymphocyte activation protein 1, Nephropontin, Spp-1, Secreted Phosphoprotein-1, transformation-related phosphoprotein, tumor-secreted phosphoprotein, urinary stone protein, Uropontin) (Hakki et al, 2005; Li et al, 2001; McKee et al, 1996; Nociti et al, 2004; Sasano et al, 2001; Saygin et al, 2000; Swanson et al, 2006; Chen et al, 1992; D'Errico et al, 1997, 1999, 2000; Sodek et al, 1995; Somerman et al, 1999; Sommer et al, 1996; Nemoto E et al, 2009; Yu H et al, 2009; Dangaria SJ et al, 2011)
¥ osteoprotegerin (OPG, FDCR-1, FDC-derived receptor-1, OCIF, osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor, OCIF/OPG, OPG/OCIF, TNFRSF11B, TNF receptor superfamily member 11B, TR1, TNF receptor-like-1) (Boabaid et al, 2004; Nociti et al, 2004)
¥¥ PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor, PDGF-1, PDGF-2, PDGF-A, PDGF-AA, PDGF-B, PDGF-BB, FDGF, fibroblast-derived growth factor, GDGF, glioma-derived growth factor-1, GDGF-2, glioma-derived growth factor-2, GSM, Glucocorticoid-suppressible mitogenic activity, MDF, mesangial cell proliferating factor, MDGF, monocyte-derived growth factor, OBIF, osteoblastogenesis inhibitory factor, ODGF, osteosarcoma-derived growth factor, T47D factor) receptors (PDGFR, PDGFR1, PDGFR2, PDGFRA, PDGFR-alpha, PDGFRB, PDGFR-beta, PDGF receptor, PDGF receptor-1, PDGF receptor-2, PDGF receptor-alpha, PDGF receptor-beta; patch; CD140a, CD140b, JTK12) (Saygin et al, 2000)
¥ PTHrP (parathyroid hormone-like related protein, PTH-related protein, parathyroid hormone-related protein, PTHR, PTH-related peptide, Parathyroid hormone-related peptide, parathyroid hormone-like hormone, PTHLH) (Beck et al, 1995; Kato et al, 2005; Boabaid et al, 2004; D'Errico et al, 1999, 2000; Kato et al, 2005; Ouyang et al, 2000; Tenorio and Hughes, 1996)
¥ RANKL (RANK ligand, receptor activator of NF-kappa-B ligand, ODF, Osteoclast differentiation factor, OPGL, Osteoprotegerin ligand, SOFA, Stromal osteoclast-forming activity, TRANCE, tumor necrosis factor-related activation induced cytokine, TNFSF11, TNF ligand superfamily member 11) (Boabaid et al, 2004; Nociti et al, 2004; Booij-Vrieling HE et al, 2010)
¥ Sclerostin (SOST, sclerosteosis) (JŠger et al, 2010)
¥ SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, osteonectin, BM-40, basement-membrane protein 40, 43K glycoprotein ) (Reichert et al, 1992)
¥ STRO-1 (Kaneko R et al, 2009)
¥¥ substance P (Neurokinin-1, NK1, NKA, Neurokinin A, Tac1, tachykinin-1) receptors (Fristad et al, 2003)
¥ TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta, TGFB, B-TGF, Aqueous humor lymphocyte inhibitory activity, DIF, differentiation-inhibiting factor, EGI, epithelial cell-specific growth inhibitor; epithelial growth inhibitor, EIF, Epstein-Barr virus inducing factor, Epithelial cell growth inhibiting factor, G-TsF, glioma-derived T-cell suppressor factor, MDGF, milk-derived growth factor, MGF, milk growth factor, Polyergin, Simian BSC-1 cell growth inhibitor, SP factor, TCGF, transformed cell growth factor, TGI, tissue-derived growth inhibitor, TIF-1, tumor inducing factor-1) (Tenorio et al, 1993)
¥ TGF-beta-1 (TGFB1, transforming growth factor-beta-1, CIF-A, cartilage inducing factor A, ISF, immunosuppressive factor, MGF-b, milk growth factor, PDGI, platelet-derived endothelial cell growth inhibitor) (Gao et al, 1999)
¥¥ TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta, TGFB, B-TGF, Aqueous humor lymphocyte inhibitory activity, DIF, differentiation-inhibiting factor, EGI, epithelial cell-specific growth inhibitor; epithelial growth inhibitor, EIF, Epstein-Barr virus inducing factor, Epithelial cell growth inhibiting factor, G-TsF, glioma-derived T-cell suppressor factor, MDGF, milk-derived growth factor, MGF, milk growth factor, Polyergin, Simian BSC-1 cell growth inhibitor, SP factor, TCGF, transformed cell growth factor, TGI, tissue-derived growth inhibitor, TIF-1, tumor inducing factor-1) receptors (TGFBR1, TbetaRI, TbetaR1, transforming growth factor-beta receptor 1, TGF-beta receptor 1; TGF-beta receptor type 1, type 1 TGF-beta receptors, ALK5, Activin receptor-like kinase 5, activin A receptor type 2-like kinase, ACVRLK4, activin receptor-like kinase 4; TGFBR2, TbetaRII, TbetaR2, transforming growth factor-beta receptor 2, TGF-beta receptor 2, TGF-beta receptor type 2, type 1 TGF-beta receptors, MFS2, Marfan syndrome type 2) (Gao et al, 1999; Saygin et al, 2000)
¥ TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1, TIMP, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, HCI, human collagenase inhibitor, CLGI, 3/10, 16C8, Fibroblast elongation factor, fibroblast collagenase inhibitor, B1 anticollagenase, Beta-1 anticollagenase, EPA, erythroid promoting activity, embryogenin-1, TPA-S1, TPA-induced protein S1) (Maruya et al, 2003)
¥ TIMP-2 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2, TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 2, CSC-21K, MI, CHIAMP, Chondrocyte-derived inhibitor of angiogenesis and metalloproteinase activity) (Maruya et al, 2003)
¥ TIMP-3 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3, TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 3, mitogen-inducible gene 5, mig-5; SFD, Sorsby fundus dystrophy) (Maruya et al, 2003)
¥ TLR-1 (Toll-like receptor-1, rsc786, randomly sequenced cDNA 786, TIL, Toll-interleukin-1 receptor-like, CD281) (Nemoto et al, 2008)
¥ TLR-2 (Toll-like receptor-2, TIL-4, Toll-interleukin-1 receptor-like-4, Ly105, lymphocyte antigen 105, CD282) (Nemoto et al, 2008)
¥ TLR-4 (Toll-like receptor-4, human Toll, TOLL, Ly87, Rasl2-8, CD284) (Nociti et al, 2004; Nemoto et al, 2008)
¥ TLR-6 (toll-like receptor-6, CD286) (Nemoto et al, 2008)
¥ TLR-9 (Toll-like receptor-9, A6RP, A6-related protein, CD289) (Nemoto et al, 2008)
¥ trkB (tropomyosin-related kinase B, NTRK2, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 2) (Ochi et al, 1997)
¥¥ Wnt-3a receptors (Nemoto E et al, 2009)
For other related/relevant entries see also: Cell types.
Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights reserved.
ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: September 2012
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